Title: Isolated distal deep vein thrombosis: what we know and what we are doing.
Citation: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH, Jan 2012, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 11-19, 1538-7836 (January 2012)
Author(s): Palareti, Gualtiero, Schellong, S
Abstract: Thromboses that are restricted to the infra-popliteal deep veins of the lower limbs (isolated distal deep vein thrombosis, IDDVT) are frequently diagnosed in subjects with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE; 7–10%) or DVT(4–15%), accounting for 31–56% of all diagnosed leg DVTs. Despite their frequency, IDDVTs still remain one of the most debated issues in the field of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Conflicting clinical results have resulted in differing opinions on the need to test for IDDVTs and how to treat them. Due to discordant results, the real risk of IDDVT-associated PE is not well established. IDDVTs are associated with (i) lower risk of recurrence when compared with other VTEs, and (ii) fewer late sequelae than proximal DVT. Diagnosis of IDDVT is based on ultrasound examination of all calf veins, which is more operator-dependent and less sensitive than proximal vein examination. A series of studies has shown, however, that a single complete ultrasound strategy in symptomatic patients has comparable clinical results to serial proximal ultrasound, allowing approximately 15% better DVT diagnosis. Optimal treatment of IDDVT is still controversial. Guidelines recommend anticoagulation for 12 weeks, although 6 weeks may be sufficient. There is, however, insufficient data to support the diagnosis and treatment of all IDDVTs, and the necessary criteria to identify subjects at higher risk of complication are lacking. It also seems likely that different approaches may be better for unprovoked or secondary events and for deep or muscle veins. Specifically designed and adequately powered clinical studies addressing the issue of IDDVT need to be urgently undertaken.
Title: Clinical characteristics of patients with isolated calf vein thrombosis in a large teaching hospital.
Citation: International journal of vascular medicine, Jan 2011, vol. 2011, p. 414093., 2090-2832 (2011)
Author(s): Brian, Santin, Fries Richard, B, Bhagwan, Satiani
Abstract: Objective. To identify the clinical characteristics of a patient population newly diagnosed with acute isolated calf deep venous thrombosis (ICDVT) by duplex ultrasound scan (DUS). Methods. A retrospective review of the records of 100 consecutive patients diagnosed with ICDVT by DUS was conducted. Results. Patients (59% male) were predominantly Caucasian (86%) and inpatients (69%) with an average age of 53 years. The most frequent risk factors were malignancy (22%), immobility (18%), and previous DVT (13%). Thrombus was present in named tibial veins in 58% and muscular branches in 42%. The peroneal vein was most frequently involved (39/117, 33%) followed by the gastrocnemius veins (29/117, 22%) and muscular calf tributaries (14%). Conclusions. Our patient population with ICDVT was predominantly symptomatic, in-patient cohort with a high incidence of risk factors such as malignancy, immobility, previous DVT, trauma, and postoperative status. Partial or complete resolution was documented by DUS in 53%.
Title: Differential diagnosis of isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis and gastrocnemius hematoma by high-frequency ultrasound.
Citation: Chinese medical journal, Dec 2013, vol. 126, no. 23, p. 4448-4452, 0366-6999 (December 2013)
Author(s): Su, Li-ya, Guo, Fa-jin, Xu, Guang, Han, Xiu-jie, Sun, Chang-kun, Zhang, Zheng, Jing, Qing-hong
Abstract: Differential diagnosis of isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis (ICMVT) and gastrocnemius hematoma is essential for early identification of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasound for differential diagnosis of ICMVT and gastrocnemius hematoma. A retrospective case series of 35 ICMVT (M:F, 21:14; mean age (64.5 ± 10.6) years) and 23 gastrocnemius hematoma (M:F, 16:7; mean age (75.4 ± 11.8) years) patients with bilateral/unilateral lower limb pain was conducted between January 2006 and September 2012. Characteristics and the morphology of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limb deep vein, great saphenous vein, calf muscles, skin, and soft tissue were examined. ICMVT hypoechoic signals were characterized by long, tube-like masses on longitudinal sections and oval masses on transverse sections, with apparent muscle thrombosis boundaries, distal and proximal venous connections, and, often, lower limb DVT. Gastrocnemius hematoma hypoechoic signals were characterized by large volumes, enhanced posterior hematoma echo, hyperechoic muscle boundaries, no hematoma blood flow, and no DVT, and clear differences in trauma/exercise- and oral anticoagulant-induced hematomas were readily apparent. According to the measurement, the ratio of long diameter/transverse diameter (D/T) in ICMVT patients was about less than 2.0, whereas in gastrocnemius hematoma patients the ratio was more than 2.0. Early stage isoechoic and hypoechoic signals were detected with gradually increasing ovular anechoic areas. Partial muscle fibers in the hematoma due to muscle fractures were apparent. High-frequency color Doppler ultrasound was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for differential diagnosis of ICMVT and gastrocnemius hematoma due to trauma and exercise or prolonged oral anticoagulant use.
Title: Do Italian vascular centers look for isolated calf deep vein thrombosis? Analysis of isolated calf deep vein thromboses included in the ”Master” Registry.
Citation: International angiology : a journal of the International Union of Angiology, Dec 2008, vol. 27, no. 6, p. 482-488, 0392-9590 (December 2008)
Author(s): Palareti, G, Agnelli, G, Imberti, D, Moia, M, Ageno, W, Pistelli, R, Rossi, R, Verso, M, MASTER Investigators
Abstract: Two diagnostic imaging strategies for suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in symptomatic patients are currently used: a serial compression ultrasound examination of proximal veins, or a single complete ultrasound investigation of proximal and distal veins. These strategies lead to different results since only the latter allows diagnosis of isolated calf DVT (ICDVT). We analyzed the approach of Italian centers in looking for ICDVT using the observational MASTER registry which prospectively collected information on patients with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism. ICDVT was diagnosed in 170 of the 1772 patients with leg DVT (9.6%). The rate of diagnosed ICDVT vs total DVT differed between centers from 0% to 24%. Patients with ICDVT were younger (P<0.0001); diagnosis was more frequently delayed (P<0.0001), temporary risk factors were more frequent, cancer was less frequent (P<0.001), and pulmonary embolism (PE) was more frequent at presentation (P<0.05). More ICDVT patients received LMWH only, not followed by oral anticoagulation (P<0.001). The diagnostic strategy for suspected leg DVT differs greatly among Italian centers. A relatively high rate of PE was recorded in patients with ICDVT for reasons which are open to debate. Prospective, well designed studies on the clinical risks and the need for diagnosing ICDVT, and the advantages/disadvantages of the two diagnostic procedures are urgently needed.