Comparison of the size of persistent foramen ovale and atrial septal defects in divers with shunt-related decompression illness and in the general population (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Wilmshurst P.T., Morrison W.L., Walsh K.P., Pearson M.J., Nightingale S.

Citation:
Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, June 2015, vol./is. 45/2(89-93)

Abstract:
Introduction: Decompression illness (DCI) is associated with a right-to-left shunt, such as persistent foramen ovale (PFO), atrial septal defect (ASD) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. About one-quarter of the population have a PFO, but considerably less than one-quarter of divers suffer DCI. Our aim was to determine whether shunt-related DCI occurs mainly or entirely in divers with the largest diameter atrial defects. Methods: Case control comparison of diameters of atrial defects (PFO and ASD) in 200 consecutive divers who had transcatheter closure of an atrial defect following shunt-related DCI and in an historic group of 263 individuals in whom PFO diameter was measured at post-mortem examination. Results: In the divers who had experienced DCI, the median atrial defect diameter was 10 mm and the mean (standard deviation) was 9.9 (3.6) mm. Among those in the general population who had a PFO, the median diameter was 5 mm and mean was 4.9 (2.6) mm. The difference between the two groups was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Of divers with shuntrelated DCI, 101 (50.5%) had an atrial defect 10 mm diameter or larger, but only 1.3% of the general population studied had a PFO that was 10 mm diameter of larger. Conclusions: The risk of a diver suffering DCI is related to the size of the atrial defect rather than just the presence of a defect.

Link to more details or full-text:

Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862-1919): brilliant yet troubled anatomist of the vocal fold (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Senior A.

Citation:
The Journal of laryngology and otology, November 2015, vol./is. 129/11(1053-1057)

Abstract:
Reinke’s space is a critical laryngeal structure, and the eponym remains in current use in both clinical and research settings. However, little is known about the life of the German anatomist Friedrich Berthold Reinke. His name is missing from the otolaryngological histories, despite his work on the structure he described being responsible for a fundamental advance in our understanding of the larynx. Although brilliant, Reinke was described as impetuous and coarse by his colleagues, resulting in his academic career being cut short. Reinke’s relative anonymity is thought to derive from the fact that he never defined himself as a laryngologist. Without question, Reinke’s observations of the human vocal fold are substantive contributions, without which modern laryngology could not have evolved. This article aimed to summarise this brilliant yet troubled man’s life and achievements, allowing appreciation for his singular genius and fundamental contribution to laryngology.

Understanding The Needs of People with Dementia and Family Carers (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Bray, J., Evans, S., Thompson, R., Bruce, M., Carter, C., Brooker, D., Milosevic, S., *Coleman, H., *McSherry, W.

Citation:
Nursing Older People 27 (7) p.18-23

Abstract:
This is the first in a short series that presents case study examples of the positive work achieved by trusts who participated in the Royal College of Nursing’s development programme to improve dementia care in acute hospitals. When a person with dementia is in hospital, poor understanding of individual needs and preferences can contribute to a lack of person-centred care. Similarly, the needs of family carers can often be overlooked and staff do not always appreciate these needs at such a stressful time. This article illustrates how three NHS trusts have addressed these issues. To help staff get to know patients with dementia, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust has implemented a patient passport. Similarly, The Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust has implemented a carer passport that overcomes the restrictions imposed by hospital visiting hours. Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust also focused on carers, holding a workshop to elicit feedback on what was important to them. This was a useful means of engaging with carers and helped staff to realise that even simple changes can have a significant effect.