1200-P: Diabetes. Predictors of glycaemic and weight gain response to empagliflozin treatment: The ABCD Nationwide Empagliflozin Audit. (2019)

Type of publication:
Poster presentation

Author(s):
Thong K, Chung-wah-Cheong J, Yadagiri M, Cull ML, Bickerton A, Phillips SM, Evans A, Sennik DK, Rohilla A, Reid H, *Morris DS, Atkin M, Robinson AM, Williams DM, Stephens JW, Adamson K, Gallen IW, Ryder RE.

Citation:
Diabetes 2019 Jun; 68 (Supplement 1)

Abstract:
Introduction: We investigated clinical parameters that are potentially associated with improved empagliflozin treatment response.

Methods: We obtained data from a large-scale audit of empagliflozin use in the UK. We analyzed the association between patients’ baseline age, HbA1c, weight, diabetes duration, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sex, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, empagliflozin dose (25 vs. 10mg), use of GLP-1RAs and use of insulin with HbA1c and weight changes at 26 weeks of treatment.

Results: Among 1436 patients, HbA1c reduced by, mean[95% CI], 1.35%[1.27,1.42] (p<0.0001) from a baseline of, mean±SD, 9.41±1.41%. Among 1381 patients, weight reduced by 3.6 kg[3.3,3.9] (p<0.0001) from a baseline of 100.2±20.7 kg. Results of univariate analyses are shown in Table 1. In multivariate analysis, higher baseline HbA1c (p<0.0001), lower CKD stage (p=0.002) and higher ALT (log transformed)(p=0.02) were associated with greater HbA1c reduction. Higher baseline weight (p<0.001) and non-insulin use (p<0.0001) were associated with greater weight reduction.

Conclusion: As expected, HbA1c reduction was associated with baseline HbA1c and background renal function, while weight reduction was associated with baseline weight. The interactions between HbA1c reduction and ALT levels, and weight reduction with insulin treatment status warrant further investigations.

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1201-P: Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients Treated with Empagliflozin in the ABCD Nationwide Empagliflozin Audit (2019)

Type of publication:
Poster presentation

Author(s):
Thong K, Chung-wah-Cheong J, Yadagiri M, Cull ML, Bickerton A, Phillips SM, Evans A, Sennik DK, Rohilla A, Reid H, *Morris DS, Atkin M, Robinson AM, Williams DM, Stephens JW, Adamson K, Gallen IW, Ryder RE.

Citation:
Diabetes 2019 Jun; 68 (Supplement 1)

Abstract:

Introduction: We investigated characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients treated with empagliflozin in a large-scale audit of routine clinical practice in the UK.

Methods: Data was obtained from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists Nationwide Empagliflozin Audit. Between December 2014 to September 2018, multiple sites submitted data through 10 major centers on 1947 patients with at least one follow-up visit after empagliflozin initiation.

Results: Baseline characteristics of patients were, mean±SD, age 59.9±9.9 years, diabetes duration 6.4±5.4 years, HbA1c 9.41±1.43%, weight 99.6±20.8 years, BMI 33.6±9.1 kg/m2and 62.1% were male. Proportion of use of empagliflozin 25mg (vs. 10mg), GLP-1 receptor agonist, and insulin were 63.7%, 13.7% and 20.1%, respectively. There were 44.9%, 49.9%, 5.1% and 0.1% of patients with eGFR>90, 60-89, 45-59 and <45 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. By 26 weeks, treatment with empagliflozin was associated with, mean±SD, HbA1c reduction of 1.35±1.49% (p<0.0001), weight reduction of 3.6±5.1 kg (p<0.0001) and systolic blood pressure reduction of 5±14 mmHg (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: An audit of empagliflozin use in the UK revealed poorly controlled diabetes being frequently encountered in practice in contrast to randomized clinical trials. There was a preponderance of empagliflozin 25mg dose use, disproportionate prescribing to men rather than women, and frequent co-prescription with GLP-1 receptor agonists and insulin. The audit showed excellent adherence to prescribing guidelines in relation to avoiding empagliflozin use in patients with eGFR<45 ml/min/1.73m2. There was similar treatment efficacy with empaglilfozin as was seen in clinical trials.

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Breast Reconstruction Affects Coping Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Survivors (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Lake, Blossom; Fuller, Heidi R; *Rastall, Sarah; *Usman, Tamoor

Citation:
Indian Journal of Surgery; Feb 2019; vol. 81 (no. 1); p. 43-50

Abstract:
Coping strategies used by women with breast cancer are vital for adjustment to their disease. Whilst it is clear that factors such as age at diagnosis, social support and ethnicity can influence coping mechanisms, there is currently no information about whether breast reconstruction changes mechanisms of coping for such patients. The aims of this study, therefore, were to determine how women who have had immediate breast reconstruction and mastectomy cope, compared to those who have mastectomy alone, and whether there are differences in coping mechanisms due to breast reconstruction surgery. This was a retrospective cohort study, using a standardised questionnaire called the Brief Cope Scale. Inclusion criteria was the following: all women
who had immediate breast reconstruction and mastectomy in Shropshire from 2003 to 2014 for ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer. Each patient was matched for year of diagnosis, adjuvant therapy and age to one woman who had mastectomy alone. Two hundred thirty-four questionnaires were sent with a 58% response rate. Significantly more patients from the reconstruction cohort coped by active coping (T value 1.66, P value 0.04) compared to those in the mastectomy alone cohort. In contrast, significantly more patients in the mastectomy alone cohort coped by active venting compared to the reconstruction cohort (T value 1.71, P value 0.04). This study indicates for the first time that breast reconstruction may alter coping mechanisms in breast cancer survivors. Awareness of these coping mechanisms will enable clinicians to provide appropriate, individualised support.

Community-acquired pneumonia: what community nurses should know. (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Pickstock, Shirley

Citation:
Journal of Community Nursing; Apr 2019; vol. 33 (no. 2); p. 50-54

Abstract:
Pneumonia has a huge impact upon the healthcare system in the UK and is not only associated with higher rates of hospital admissions than any other respiratory disease, but also carries a high risk of mortality. This article offers an overview of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients, including the pathophysiology, common aetiologies, at-risk groups and pharmacological management. There is also a brief discussion on differential diagnoses and potential strategies to support clinical decision-making in the community.

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Coeliac disease (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Butterworth J.; *Los L.

Citation:
Medicine (United Kingdom); 2019; vol. 47, no. 5, p. 314-319

Abstract:
Coeliac disease (CD) is a common, chronic, immune-mediated small bowel enteropathy resulting from gluten exposure in genetically susceptible individuals. Considerable clinical and immunopathological heterogeneity is seen in newly diagnosed patients, and the diagnosis is not always straightforward even for experienced physicians. Population screening using tissue transglutaminase 2 has revealed a higher prevalence of seropositivity than previously appreciated. There is a wide differential diagnosis for mucosal villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and increased intraepithelial lymphocyte concentrations. Life-long adherence to a gluten-free diet is currently the only recommended treatment for CD, although many newer approaches are being explored. CD is rightly described as a multisystem disorder and is associated with other gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal related disorders, numerous complications and possibly reduced survival. The landscape has recently expanded with the identification that some patients with symptoms suggestive of CD but without the mucosal changes seem to respond to a gluten-free diet. This group of patients are currently labelled as having non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Controversy exists over whether this is a separate disease entity. This review briefly discusses the important clinical, immunological and therapeutic aspects of CD.

Ketoacidosis in patients on SGLT2 inhibitor: Experience from a district general hospital (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Kandaswamy L.; *Al-Salihi A.; *Singh P.K.; *Rangan S.; *Moulik P.K.

Citation:
Diabetic Medicine; Mar 2019; vol. 36 ; p. 174

Abstract:
Introduction: European Medicines Agency recognised diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as a rare and serious side effect of SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i). In six months, five cases of DKA in Type 2 diabetes on SGLT-2i were diagnosed at Royal Shrewsbury hospital. Case reports: Case 1: A 63 year old lady on metformin, dapagloflozin, gliclazide with HbA1c-102mmol/mol presented with nausea, vomiting and breathlessness was treated for DKA and pneumonia with pH 7.24, blood sugar-16mmol/l, bicarbonate-17 and ketones-3.6. Case 2: A 61 year old lady on liraglutide, gliclazide, canagliflozin with HbA1c 98mmol/mol presented with nausea, vomiting and polyuria had pH 6.9, blood sugar-16.4mmol/l, bicarbonate-<3 and ketones-5.4. Cases 3, 4 and 5: Patients established on insulin treatment with compliance issues (significantly reducing and missing insulin) had DKA. One of them had associated infection.
Discussion(s): Infection predisposed to DKA in two patients. Two patients had long duration of diabetes and poorly controlled glucose on maximum oral therapy indicating reduced beta cell reserve and three were already on insulin but reduced or missed the doses. All patients were treated according to DKA protocol and made full recovery, SGLT2i was stopped and insulin commenced in two of them and continued with others. Sick day rules emphasised.
Conclusion(s): SGLT2i lowers plasma glucose through glycosuria and promotes ketogenesis. Declining beta cell reserve with increasing duration of diabetes and relative insulin deficiency at the time of stress increases the risk of DKA. Patients on SGLT-2I should be educated of these risks particularly when they have a long duration of diabetes and are established in insulin therapy.

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