How good are surgeons at identifying appendicitis? Results from a multi-centre cohort study (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Strong S., Blencowe N., Bhangu A., Panagiotopoulou I.G., Chatzizacharias N., Rana M., Rollins K., Ejtehadi F., Jha B., Tan Y.W., Fanous N., Markides G., Tan A., Marshal C., Akhtar S., Mullassery D., Ismail A., Hitchins C., Sharif S., Osborne L., Sengupta N., Challand C., Pournaras D., Bevan K., King J., Massey J., Sandhu I., Wells J.M., Teichmann D.A., Peckham-Cooper A., Sellers M., Folaranmi S.E., Davies B., Potter S., Egbeare D., Kallaway C., Parsons S., Upchurch E., Lazaridis A., Cocker D., King D., Behar N., Loukogeorgakis S.P., Kalaiselvan R., Marzouk S., Turner E.J.H., Kaptanis S., Kaur V., Shingler G., Bennett A., Shaikh S., Aly M., Coad J., Khong T., Nouman Z., Crawford J., Szatmary P., West H., MacDonald A., Lambert J., Gash K., Hanks K.A., Griggs E., Humphreys L., Torrance A., Hardman J., Taylor L., Rex D., Bennett J., Crowther N., McAree B., Flexer S., Mistry P., Jain P., Hwang M., Oswald N., Wells A., Newsome H., Martinez P., Alvarez C.A.B., Leon J., Carradice D., Gohil R., Mount M., Campbell A., Iype S., Dyson E., Groot-Wassink T., Ross A.R., Charlesworth P., Baylem N., Voll J., Sian T., Creedon L., Hicks G., Goring J., Ng V., Tiboni S., Palser T., Rees B., Ravindra P., Neophytou C., Dent H., Lo T., Broom L., O’Connell M., Foulkes R., Griffith D., Butcher K., Mclaren O., Tai A., Yano H., Torrance H.D.T., Moussa O., Mittapalli D., D.Watt, Basson S., Gilliland J., Pilgrim S., Wilkins A., Yee J., Cain H., Wilson M., Pearson J., Turnbull E., Brigic A., Yassin N.A., Clarke J., Mallappa S., Jackson P., Jones C., Lakshminarayanan B., Sharma A., Velineni R., Fareed K., Yip G., Brown A., Patel N., Ghisel M., Tanner N., Jones H., Witherspoon J., Phillips M., Ho M.F., Ng S., Mak T., Campain N., Mukhey D., Mitchell W.K., Amawi F., Dickson E., Aggarwal S., Satherley L.K., Asprou F., Keys C., Steven M., Johnstone M., Muhlschlegel J., Hamilton E., Yin J., Dilworth M., Wright A., Spreadborough P., Singh M., Mockford K., Morgan J., Ball W., Royle J., Lacy-Colson J., Lai W., Griffiths S., Mitchell S., Parsons C., Joel A.S., Mason P.F., Harrison G.J., Steinke J., Rafique H., Battersby C., Hawkins W., Gurram D., Hateley C.A., Penkethman A., Lambden C., Conway A., Dent P., Yacob D., Oshin O.A., Hargreaves A., Gossedge G., Long J., Walls M., Futaba K., Pinkney T., Puig.S, Boddy A., Jones A., Tennuci C., Battersby N., Wilkin R., Lloyd C., Sein E., McEvoy K., Whisker L., Austin S., Colori A., Sinclair P., Loughran M., Lawrence A., Horsnell J., Bagenal J., Pisesky A., Mastoridis S., Solanki K., Siddiq I., Merker L., Sarmah P., Richardson C., Hanratty D., Evans L., Mortimer M., Bhalla A., Bartlett D., Beral D., Cornish J., Haddow J.B., Hall N.J.

Citation:
International Journal of Surgery, March 2015, vol./is. 15/(107-112)

Abstract:
Background: Convincing arguments for either removing or leaving in-situ a macroscopically normal appendix have been made, but rely on surgeons’ accurate intra-operative assessment of the appendix. This study aimed to determine the inter-rater reliability between surgeons and pathologists from a large, multicentre cohort of patients undergoing appendicectomy. Materials and methods: The Multicentre Appendicectomy Audit recruited consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy during April and May 2012 from 95 centres. The primary endpoint was agreement between surgeon and pathologist and secondary endpoints were predictors of this disagreement. Results: The final study included 3138 patients with a documented pathological specimen. When surgeons assessed an appendix as normal (n=496), histopathological assessment revealed pathology in a substantial proportion (n=138, 27.8%). Where surgeons assessed the appendix as being inflamed (n=2642), subsequent pathological assessment revealed a normal appendix in 254 (9.6%). There was overall disagreement in 392 cases (12.5%), leading to only moderate reliability (Kappa 0.571). The grade of surgeon had no significant impact on disagreement following clinically normal appendicectomy. Females were at the highest risk of false positives and false negatives and pre-operative computed tomography was associated with increased false positives. Conclusions: This multi-centre study suggests that surgeons’ judgements of the intra-operative macroscopic appearance of the appendix is inaccurate and does not improve with seniority and therefore supports removal at the time of surgery.

Safety of short, in-hospital delays before surgery for acute appendicitis: Multicentre cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Bhangu A., Panagiotopoulou I.G., Chatzizacharias N., Rana M., Rollins K., Ejtehadi F., Jha B., Tan Y.W., Fanous N., Markides G., Tan A., Marshal C., Akhtar S., Mullassery D., Ismail A., Hitchins C., Sharif S., Osborne L., Sengupta N., Challand C., Pournaras D., Bevan K., King J., Massey J., Sandhu I., Wells J.M., Teichmann D.A., Peckham-Cooper A., Sellers M., Folaranmi S.E., Davies B., Potter S., Egbeare D., Kallaway C., Parsons S., Upchurch E., Lazaridis A., Cocker D., King D., Behar N., Loukogeorgakis S.P., Kalaiselvan R., Marzouk S., H. Turner E.J., Kaptanis S., Kaur V., Shingler G., Bennett A., Shaikh S., Aly M., Coad J., Khong T., Nouman Z., Crawford J., Szatmary P., West H., MacDonald A., Lambert J., Gash K., Hanks K.A., Griggs E., Humphreys L., Torrance A., Hardman J., Taylor L., Rex D., Bennett J., Crowther N., McAree B., Flexer S., Mistry P., Jain P., Hwang M., Richardson J., Oswald N., Wells A., Newsome H., Martinez P., B. Alvarez C.A., Leon J., Carradice D., Gohil R., Mount M., Campbell A., Iype S., Dyson E., Groot-Wassink T., Ross A.R., Charlesworth P., Baylem N., Voll J., Sian T., Creedon L., Hicks G., Goring J., Ng V., Tiboni S., Palser T., Rees B., Ravindra P., Neophytou C., Dent H., Lo T., Broom L., O’Connell M., Foulkes R., Griffith D., Butcher K., McLaren O., Tai A., Yano H., T. Torrance H.D., Moussa O., Mittapalli D., Watt D., Basson S., Gilliland J., Wilkins A., Yee J., Cain H., Wilson M., Pearson J., Turnbull E., Brigic A., Yassin N.A., Clarke J., Mallappa S., Jackson P., Jones C., Lakshminarayanan B., Sharma A., Fareed K., Yip G., Brown A., Patel N., Ghisel M., Tanner N., Jones H., Witherspoon J., Phillips M., Ho M.F., Ng S., Mak T., Campain N., Mukhey D., Mitchell W.K., Amawi F., Dickson E., Aggarwal S., Satherley L.K., Asprou F., Keys C., Steven M., Muhlschlegel J., Hamilton E., Yin J., Dilworth M., Wright A., Spreadborough P., Singh M., Mockford K., Morgan J., *Ball W., *Royle J., *Lacy-Colson J., Lai W., Griffiths S., Mitchell S., Parsons C., Joel A.S., Mason P.F., Harrison G.J., Steinke J., Rafique H., Battersby C., Hawkins W., Gurram D., Hateley C.A., Penkethman A., Lambden C., Conway A., Dent P., Yacob D., Oshin O.A., Hargreaves A., Gossedge G., Long J., Walls M., Futaba K., Pinkney T., Puig S., Nepogodiev D., Marriott P., Boddy A., Jones A., Tennuci C., Battersby N., Wilkin R., Lloyd C., Sein E., McEvoy K., Whisker L., Austin S., Colori A., Sinclair P., Loughran M., Lawrence A., Horsnell J., Bagenal J., Pisesky A., Mastoridis S., Solanki K., Siddiq I., Merker L., Sarmah P., Richardson C., Hanratty D., Evans L., Mortimer M., Bhalla A., Bartlett D., Beral D., Blencowe N.S., Cornish J., Haddow J.B., Hall N.J., Johnstone M., Pilgrim S., Trong S., Velineni R.

Citation:
Annals of Surgery, May 2014, vol./is. 259/5(894-903), 0003-4932;1528-1140 (May 2014)

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To determine safety of short in-hospital delays before appendicectomy. BACKGROUND: Short organizational delays before appendicectomy may safely improve provision of acute surgical services. METHODS: The primary endpoint was the rate of complex appendicitis (perforation, gangrene, and/or abscess). The main explanatory variable was timing of surgery, using less than 12 hours from admission as the reference. The first part of this study analyzed primary data from a multicentre study on appendicectomy from 95 centers. The second part combined this data with a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. RESULTS: The cohort study included 2510 patients with acute appendicitis, of whom 812 (32.4%) had complex findings. Adjusted multivariable binary regression modelling showed that timing of operation was not related to risk of complex appendicitis [12-24 hours odds ratio (OR) 0.98 (P = 0.869); 24-48 hours OR 0.88 (P = 0.329); 48+ hours OR 0.82 (P = 0.317)]. However, after 48 hours, the risk of surgical site infection and 30-day adverse events both increased [adjusted ORs 2.24 (P = 0.039) and 1.71 (P = 0.024), respectively]. Meta-analysis of 11 nonrandomized studies (8858 patients) revealed that delay of 12 to 24 hours after admission did not increase the risk of complex appendicitis (OR 0.97, P = 0.750). CONCLUSIONS: Short delays of less than 24 hours before appendicectomy were not associated with increased rates of complex pathology in selected patients. These organizational delays may aid service provision, but planned delay beyond this should be avoided. However, where optimal surgical systems allow for expeditious surgery, prompt appendicectomy will still aid fastest resolution of pain for the individual patient.

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