Breast Reconstruction Affects Coping Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Survivors (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Lake, Blossom; Fuller, Heidi R; *Rastall, Sarah; *Usman, Tamoor

Citation:
Indian Journal of Surgery; Feb 2019; vol. 81 (no. 1); p. 43-50

Abstract:
Coping strategies used by women with breast cancer are vital for adjustment to their disease. Whilst it is clear that factors such as age at diagnosis, social support and ethnicity can influence coping mechanisms, there is currently no information about whether breast reconstruction changes mechanisms of coping for such patients. The aims of this study, therefore, were to determine how women who have had immediate breast reconstruction and mastectomy cope, compared to those who have mastectomy alone, and whether there are differences in coping mechanisms due to breast reconstruction surgery. This was a retrospective cohort study, using a standardised questionnaire called the Brief Cope Scale. Inclusion criteria was the following: all women
who had immediate breast reconstruction and mastectomy in Shropshire from 2003 to 2014 for ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer. Each patient was matched for year of diagnosis, adjuvant therapy and age to one woman who had mastectomy alone. Two hundred thirty-four questionnaires were sent with a 58% response rate. Significantly more patients from the reconstruction cohort coped by active coping (T value 1.66, P value 0.04) compared to those in the mastectomy alone cohort. In contrast, significantly more patients in the mastectomy alone cohort coped by active venting compared to the reconstruction cohort (T value 1.71, P value 0.04). This study indicates for the first time that breast reconstruction may alter coping mechanisms in breast cancer survivors. Awareness of these coping mechanisms will enable clinicians to provide appropriate, individualised support.

Over 70s breast cancer management: A single institute experience (2018)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Dube M.; Talaat A.; *Rastall S.; *Przyczyna A.; *Usman T.

Citation:
European Journal of Surgical Oncology; Jun 2018; vol. 44 (no. 6); p. 898

Abstract:
Introduction: With increasing life expectancy, awareness and improved referral system more women over the age of 70 (70+) are diagnosed with breast cancer. NICE guidelines recommended standard treatment of breast cancer irrespective of age and decision rather based on co-morbidities and frailty. To review our compliance with NICE guidelines we audited management of breast cancer of 70+ women over a period of five years. Methods: Retrospective case note analysis of 833 70+ women with breast cancer diagnosed from April 2010 to March 2015. Breast MDT recommendations, reason for choice of treatment, co-morbidities and performance status recorded. Results: Out of 2729 breast cancer diagnosis 30% (833) were 70+. The median age was 78. Surgery was the treatment of choice in all five years and is represented by 60% in year one, four and five; 55% in year two; 45% in year three. Primary endocrine treatment was the next treatment of choice among 28% in year one, 23% in year two, 30% in year three, 20% in year four, and 25% in year five. Offer and acceptance adjuvant treatments have increased in year wise analysis. Conclusions: We have noticed a shift towards surgery from primary endocrine therapy in year wise analysis. There has been an increase of number of 70+ patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Inclusion of performance status had improved offer of adjuvant treatment in the last year of the study. More individualised and evidence based management recommended to offer appropriate treatment in this age group.

Breast reconstruction affects coping mechanisms in breast cancer survivors (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Lake, B., Fuller, H.R., *Rastall, S, *Usman, T

Citation:
Indian Journal of Surgery, December 2017

Abstract:
Coping strategies used by women with breast cancer are vital for adjustment to their disease. Whilst it is clear that factors such as age at diagnosis, social support and ethnicity can influence coping mechanisms, there is currently no information about whether breast reconstruction changes mechanisms of coping for such patients. The aims of this study, therefore, were to determine how women who have had immediate breast reconstruction and mastectomy cope, compared to those who have mastectomy alone, and whether there are differences in coping mechanisms due to breast reconstruction surgery. This was a retrospective cohort study, using a standardised questionnaire called the Brief Cope Scale. Inclusion criteria was the following: all women who had immediate breast reconstruction and mastectomy in Shropshire from 2003 to 2014 for ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer. Each patient was matched for year of diagnosis, adjuvant therapy and age to one woman who had mastectomy alone. Two hundred thirty-four questionnaires were sent with a 58% response rate. Significantly more patients from the reconstruction cohort coped by active coping (T value 1.66, P value 0.04) compared to those in the mastectomy alone cohort. In contrast, significantly more patients in the mastectomy alone cohort coped by active venting compared to the reconstruction cohort (T value 1.71, P value 0.04). This study indicates for the first time that breast reconstruction may alter coping mechanisms in breast cancer survivors. Awareness of these coping mechanisms will enable clinicians to provide appropriate, individualised support.

The impact of age on the art of mammography and how to adapt accordingly (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Lake, B.; *Cielecki, L.; *Williams, S.; *Worrall, C.; *Metelko, M.

Citation:
Radiography; Nov 2017; vol. 23 (no. 4) e120–e121

Abstract:
Introduction Breast cancer is increasingly a disease of the elderly, and combined with the NHS Breast Screening Extension means that more elderly patients are having mammography. Increasing age can make mammography more technically difficult. This is a technical note detailing the results of a local audit which may be of interest due to potential service implications. Method A retrospective audit of the first year of screening extension of The Shropshire Breast Screening Programme. Aims to collect data on patient demographics and describe the technical adaptations developed in Shropshire. Results Breast screening extension has increased by 2.5 times the number of women aged 70–74 screened, and doubled the overall numbers of women over 70 screened. Significantly more older patients are being screened to present technical challenges to a screening programme. Data was obtained from a month of screening showed that 29% of patients over 70 needed extra time for positioning. Reasons included 22% difficulty in obtaining adequate positioning and 15% needed a relative to aid with consent. Discussion In the Shropshire screening programme different technical adaptations have been developed and are key to ensuring adequate images. These include double appointments, two radiographers, thorough assessment, steeper angles, seated examinations, from-below imaging and pre-planning for subsequent screen. Conclusion Significantly more older women are having breast screening due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer and the Breast Screening Programme extension. Increasing age can significantly increase time taken for adequate imaging and present technical challenges. Development of technical adaptations to art of mammography is key to achieve adequate images.

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An audit of ‘real world’ systemic chemotherapy in breast cancer patients over the age of 70 in one U.K. Cancer Centre (2018)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Choudhary Y.; *Pettit L.; *Khanduri S.

Citation:
European Journal of Surgical Oncology; Mar 2018; vol. 44

Abstract:
Background: Breast cancer incidence among the over 70’s is increasing. Trial data from this age group is not as extensive when compared with younger patients. Co-morbidities are common and may lead to poor tolerance of chemotherapy. Cytotoxic chemotherapy usage in patients over 70 was audited to record toxicity and tolerability.Method: Patients aged >70 years, diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 01/01/2015 and 31/12/2015 treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy at the Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust were identified from the Somerset database. Clinical information was obtained from an electronic portal. Data collected: demographics, performance status, tumour characteristics, ER/PR and HER2 status, chemotherapy regimen, treatment intent, number of chemotherapy cycles planned, number given, toxicities, and hospital admissions. Data was collected on an excel database.Results: Thirty patients were identified, all female. 26 were between 71 and 75, 2 were between 76 and 80, 2 > 80 years. 20 patients (67%) ER/PR receptor positive. 15 (50%) HER2 positive. The majority 29 (97%) had a performance status of 0/1. Cardiovascular co-morbidities were the most common (57% pre-existing cardiovascular disease). 25 (83%) were treated with adjuvant intent. 15 (50%) were admitted to hospital, 6 (20%) with neutropenic sepsis. 12 (40%) had dose reductions. 21 (70%) completed their planned number of cycles. Chemotherapy was discontinued in 7 (23%) due to toxicity and 1 patient remains on treatment at the time of this audit. There were no patient deaths within 30 days of commencing chemotherapy.Conclusion: Chemotherapy usage in the >70’s was associated with higher risk breast cancer. Despite good baseline performance status, 50% of patients required hospital admission and 27% discontinued treatment due to toxicity. The decision to use chemotherapy must also account for potential toxicities and impact on quality of life. Increased contact with health professionals including tele-consults and increased specialist nurse support, will help to predict and manage toxicity and reduce admissions.

Partial breast radiotherapy after breast conservation: 5 year outcomes from the IMPORT LOW (CRUK/06/003) phase III trial (2017)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Coles C.; Griffin C.; Bhattacharya I.; Emson M.; Haviland J.; Hopwood P.; Kaggwa R.; Bliss J.; Kirby A.; Donovan E.; *Agrawal R.; Alhasso A.; Brunt A.M.; Ciurlionis L.; Chan H.; Harnett A.; Sawyer E.; Sybdikus I.; Tsang Y.; Wheatley D.; Wilcox M.; Yarnold J.; Jefford M.

Citation:
Radiotherapy and Oncology; May 2017; vol. 123

Abstract:
Background: Local cancer relapse rates after breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy have fallen sharply in many countries with risk influenced by patient age and clinico-pathological factors. In women at lower than average risk of local relapse, partial breast radiotherapy restricted to the vicinity of the original tumour is hypothesised to improve the balance of beneficial versus adverse effects compared with whole breast radiotherapy. Methods: The IMPORT LOW trial (ISRCTN12852634) recruited women aged >=50 years after breast conserving surgery for invasive ductal adenocarcinoma pT<=3cm, pN0- 3, G1-3 and >=2mm resection margins. Using 15 daily treatments, patients were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to 40 Gy whole breast radiotherapy (control), 36 Gy whole breast plus 40 Gy to partial breast (reduced dose) or 40 Gy partial breast only (partial breast). Primary endpoint was ipsilateral local relapse rate (80% power to exclude a +2.5% noninferiority margin at 5 years for each test group). Findings: Between May 2007 and October 2010, 2018 women were recruited (control n=675, reduced dose: n=674, partial breast: n=669). With a 72.2 month median followup (IQR 61.7-83.2), 5-year local relapse rates were 1.1% (95%CI 0.5-2.3), 0.2% (0.02-1.2) and 0.5% (0.2-1.4) in control, reduced dose and partial breast groups. Absolute differences in local relapse rate compared with the control group were -0.73% (-0.99, 0.22) for the reduced dose and -0.38% (-0.84, 0.90) for the partial breast groups, demonstrating non-inferiority for both test groups. Photographs, patients and clinicians reported similar or lower levels of adverse effects after reduced dose or partial breast radiotherapy compared with whole breast radiotherapy (see Table 1). (Table presented) Interpretation: At 5 years, partial breast and reduced
dose radiotherapy showed local relapse rates non-inferior to that observed following whole breast radiotherapy and produced equivalent or milder late normal tissue side effects. This simple radiotherapy technique is implementable in radiotherapy centres worldwide.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw and oral health-related quality of life after adjuvant zoledronic acid: An adjuvant zoledronic acid to reduce recurrence trial subprotocol (BIG01/04) (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Rathbone E.J.; Brown J.E.; Coleman R.E.; Marshall H.C.; Collinson M.; Liversedge V.; Murden G.A.; Cameron D.; Spensley S.; *Agrawal R.; Jyothirmayi R.; Chakraborti P.; Yuille F.; Bell R.

Citation:
Journal of Clinical Oncology; Jul 2013; vol. 31 (no. 21); p. 2685-2691

Abstract:
Purpose: In patients with early breast cancer, adjuvant zoledronic acid (zoledronate) may reduce recurrence and improve survival. However, zoledronate is associated with the occasional development of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). We report on the frequency of ONJ and investigate oral health-related quality of life (Oral-QoL) in a large randomized trial (Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid to Reduce Recurrence [AZURE]). Patients and Methods: Three thousand three hundred sixty women with stage II or III breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive standard adjuvant systemic therapy alone or with zoledronate administered at a dose of 4 mg for 19 doses over 5 years. All potential occurrences of ONJ were reported as serious adverse events and centrally reviewed. Additionally, we invited 486 study participants to complete the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) to assess Oral-QoL around the time the patients completed 5 years on study. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate mean scores and 95% CIs in addition to identifying independent prognostic factors. Results: With a median follow-up time of 73.9 months (interquartile range, 60.7 to 84.2 months), 33 possible cases of ONJ were reported, all in the zoledronate-treated patients. Twenty-six cases were confirmed as being consistent with a diagnosis of ONJ, representing a cumulative incidence of 2.1% (95% CI, 0.9% to 3.3%) in the zoledronate arm. Three hundred sixty-two patients (74%) returned the OHIP-14 questionnaire. Neither the prevalence nor severity of impacts on Oral-QoL differed significantly between zoledronate patients and control patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant zoledronate used in the intensive schedule studied in the AZURE trial is associated with a low incidence of ONJ but does not seem to adversely affect Oral-QoL.