Coeliac disease (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Butterworth J.; *Los L.

Citation:
Medicine (United Kingdom); 2019; vol. 47, no. 5, p. 314-319

Abstract:
Coeliac disease (CD) is a common, chronic, immune-mediated small bowel enteropathy resulting from gluten exposure in genetically susceptible individuals. Considerable clinical and immunopathological heterogeneity is seen in newly diagnosed patients, and the diagnosis is not always straightforward even for experienced physicians. Population screening using tissue transglutaminase 2 has revealed a higher prevalence of seropositivity than previously appreciated. There is a wide differential diagnosis for mucosal villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and increased intraepithelial lymphocyte concentrations. Life-long adherence to a gluten-free diet is currently the only recommended treatment for CD, although many newer approaches are being explored. CD is rightly described as a multisystem disorder and is associated with other gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal related disorders, numerous complications and possibly reduced survival. The landscape has recently expanded with the identification that some patients with symptoms suggestive of CD but without the mucosal changes seem to respond to a gluten-free diet. This group of patients are currently labelled as having non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Controversy exists over whether this is a separate disease entity. This review briefly discusses the important clinical, immunological and therapeutic aspects of CD.

Diagnostic yield of biliary brushing cytology: A single centre study (2016)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Wasimi M., Azam A.S., Abdullah P., Muzaffar S.

Citation:
Journal of Pathology, March 2016, vol. 238, Supplement 1, p.S19

Abstract:
Introduction: Biliary brushing cytology is a commonly used technique for the diagnosis of extra hepatic biliary and pancreatic malignancy. Despite a high specificity, the sensitivity remains low and variable. British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines recommend cytological analysis of brushing taken from the biliary structure to support diagnosis of malignancy in suspected individuals. We report here a single center experience of diagnostic yield of cytological specimens of biliary brushings. Objectives: (a) To determine the percentage of biliary brushing cytology cases with positive, negative, false positive and false negative results. (b) To determine the positive and negative predictive value of this test in our centre. (c) To see the correlation between cytological, radiological and clinical findings. Methodology: This is a retrospective data analysis of all biliary brushing cytology cases reported over three years from Jan 2012 to Jan 2014. The data was obtained from cytology reports and findings were correlated with the radiological diagnosis, outcome from the MDT meetings and subsequent follow up from the clinic letters. Results: A total of 34 biliary brushing cytology cases were reported between 2012 to 2014. Among them 22 were men and 12 were women. Average age was 69 years (Range 24-92 years). Out of 34, 15 cases (44%) showed presence of malignant cells and all these were true positives with underlying pancreatic and biliary malignancy. Among the remaining 19 cases, 10 cases were true negatives and 9 cases were false negatives. In our cohort, the specificity of biliary brushing cytology was 100% and sensitivity was 63%. The positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 53%. Conclusion: Biliary brushing cytology in conjunction with radiological investigation and serology is a useful technique in patients with suspected pancreato-biliary malignancy. Our results are comparable to studies done in other centres. To be re-audited.

Link to more details or full-text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/path.4705/epdf

Validation of the English translation of the low anterior resection syndrome score (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Juul T., Christensen P., Janjua A.Z., Laurberg S., Emmertsen K.J., Moran B., Khan R.B., Kurasz C., Waldron E., Battersby N.J., Janjau Z., Moran B.J., Shahir T., Chan K., Glynne-Jones R., Kelly S., Evans K., Hughes R., Smith F., Heath B., Leinhardt D., Norton A., Jayne D., Moriarty C., Laing E., Mawdsley S., Bourner L., Narula N., Ward J., *Lacy-Colson J., *Moore H., *Potts S., Branagan G., Bell L., Chave H., Carter V., Mirza N., Pereira G., Williams J.G., Last K., Todd J., Woodcock N.

Citation:
Colorectal Disease, October 2015, vol./is. 17/10(908-916)

Abstract:
Aim: Many patients having anterior resection for rectal cancer suffer from severe long-term bowel dysfunction, known as low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). The LARS score was developed in Denmark, and Swedish, Spanish and German versions have been validated. The aim of this study was to validate the English translation of the LARS score in British rectal cancer patients. Method: Rectal cancer patients who underwent an anterior resection in 12 UK centres received the LARS score questionnaire, the EORTC QLQ-C30 and a single ad hoc quality of life question. A subgroup of patients received the LARS score questionnaire twice. Results: The response rate was 80% and 451 patients were included in the analyses. A strong association between LARS score and quality of life (convergent validity) was found (P < 0.01), discriminative validity was good (P < 0.02) and the test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83). Conclusion: The English translation of the LARS score has shown good psychometric properties comparable with recently published results from an international multicentre study. Thus, the English translation of the LARS score can be considered a valid and reliable tool for measuring LARS.

Laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (LARS): Determine the hiatal defect repair using the intra-operatively calculated surface area (SA) cm2 (2014)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Sukha A., *Adjepong S., *Pattar J., *Sigurdsson A.

Citation:
International Journal of Surgery, November 2014, vol./is. 12/(S100)

Abstract:
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) techniques when repairing hiatal defects using the intra operatively calculated surface area (SA) at single-centre Upper Gastrointestinal Laparoscopic Unit. Methods: 100 patients (mean age = 59, average BMI 31) with symptoms of GORD underwent LARS. The SA (cm2) was calculated using an endoscopic ruler and the formula;(1/2 x base x height) x2. The method of closure; Surgisis +/-simple tension free sutures, was recorded for each hiatal closure. Results: The mean calculated SA repaired was 9.0cm2 and there was a 2%(2) recurrence rate. There were 3 modalities of repair; 1) Surgisis, posterior and anterior sutures (mean SA=10.0cm2, average BMI = 28); 2) Surgisis and posterior sutures (mean SA=9.5cm2, average BMI=29); 3) posterior sutures only (mean SA =6.1cm2, average BMI=32, mean number of sutures 3). Conclusions: It was found that the greater the average SA cm2 of the hiatus hernia the greater the number of modalities of repair used. There was no correlation found between BMI and the surface area of the hiatus hernia. Currently there are no set standard for method of repair based on the SA of the defect; however guidelines have been derived from this study.

Link to more details or full-text:
http://www.journal-surgery.net/article/S1743-9191(14)00735-3/pdf

Abdominal cocoon (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Christian B S Katz, *Robert T Diggory, Abdus Samee

Citation:
BMJ Case Reports 2014; doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-203102

Abstract:
Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms.

Link to more details or full-text: http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2014/bcr-2013-203102.full.pdf+html

A novel sampling device for collecting mucocellular material from the unprepared rectum (2014)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Booth J., *Lacy-Colson J., Norwood M., Murray C.

Citation:
Gut, June 2014, vol./is. 63/(A124-A125), 0017-5749 (June 2014) (also published in European Journal of Cancer, July 2014, vol./is. 50/(S240), 0959-8049 (July 2014))

Abstract:
Background: In vitro diagnostic tests are being developed to evaluate informative protein or DNA biomarkers in stool or blood samples. Stool samples are inconvenient to collect and handle, and may suffer from contamination that interferes with molecular assays. Blood samples may not be as informative early in the disease process. Studies have shown that significant numbers of exfoliated cells and their products are retained in a muco-cellular layer overlaying the colonic mucosa, but distinct from the stool, and that this material flows toward the rectum, where it can be captured for analysis. Materials and Methods: Origin Sciences (OS) has developed a novel sampling device that incorporates an inflatable nitrile membrane. Following insertion into the unprepared rectum via a standard proctoscope, the membrane is inflated to make contact with the rectal mucosa for 10 seconds. The membrane is then deflated and retracted into the device prior to removal from the patient. Upon retraction the sampled material is retained on the inverted membrane, which acts as a receptacle for the addition of buffer preserving the material for subsequent analysis. Results: The sampler has now been tested in over 2000 patients and healthy volunteers, and has shown excellent acceptability. Tests and in vitro experiments with monolayers of cultured human cells indicate that the membrane captures intact cells, which are easily washed off the membrane for further investigation. Detailed evaluation of the mucous-associated material captured by the device, in both normal and diseased states, shows it to be rich in protein and nucleic acids. Levels of soluble protein present in standard 3 mL capture buffer varied between 90 and 3000 mug/mL, with a mean of 710 mg/muL. OS has detected informative auto-antibodies of isotypes IgA, IgG, and IgM by ELISA in the protein component of these preparations. These preparations are also rich in nucleic acids; DNA was found at levels ranging from 0.5 to 21.9 mg/muL. This DNA appears to retain a high degree of integrity, since a number of informative genes have been detected by quantitative PCR. Conclusions: The sampling device represents a novel and minimally invasive tool for capturing biomarker-rich material from the unprepared rectum. With minimal contamination by stool, the material collected is readily analysable. In principle this device lends itself to point-of-care testing for a range of indications, including infectious and inflammatory diseases of the GI tract, in addition to malignancy.

Link to more details or full-text:
http://gut.bmj.com/content/63/Suppl_1/A124.2

Laparoscopic ileocaecal resection for Crohn’s disease: Initial experience in Shrewsbury (2014)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Vidyasankar V., *Cheetham M., *McCloud J

Citation:
Colorectal Disease, July 2014, vol./is. 16/(189), 1462-8910 (July 2014)

Abstract:
Aim: Randomised controlled trials have demonstrated short-term advantages to laparoscopic surgery for ileocaecal Crohn’s disease. Following the introduction of laparoscopic colorectal surgery, we extended our repertoire to include laparoscopic Crohn’s resections. The aim of our study was to assess the safety and outcome following the introduction of laparoscopic resection for ileocaecal Crohn’s. Method: Between January 2008 and November 2012, 30 patients (12 men and 18 women, Median age 30 years), underwent laparoscopic ileocaecal resection for Crohn’s disease. 27 patients had stricturing disease, 2 patients presented with a mass and 1 presented with perforation. Patients were given an intraoperative spinal anaesthetic followed by PCA for 48 hours. All patients were commenced on an enhanced recovery programme. Results: Mean operative time was 90 min. Mean hospital stay was 3 days (range 3-7 days). Two patients (6%) required conversion to open surgery because of a fixed mass (n = 1) and dense adhesions (n = 1). One patient (3%) required reoperation due to haemorrhage. One patient (3%) had prolonged hospital stay due to ileus. One patient (3%) had an anastomotic leak. There were no deaths in this series. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that laparoscopic resection of ileocaecal Crohn’s disease can be safely performed at a district general hospital with a short length of stay and minimal morbidity.

Link to more details or full-text:

 

Incidence of metachronous colorectal tumours at one year surveillance colonoscopy (2014)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Bajwa A., *McConnell C., *Odulaja M., *Chandra A., *Luke D., *Cheetham M.

Citation:
Colorectal Disease, September 2014, vol./is. 16/(59), 1462-8910 (September 2014)

Abstract:
Aim: The National Institution for health and care excellence (of United Kingdom) updated their guidelines for colorectal cancer follow up in 2011. This included the recommendation for a 1 year post op surveillance colonoscopy to detect metachronous malignant and premalignant colorectal tumours. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this aggressive surveillance policy. Method: Seventy-five consecutive patients who had undergone colorectal resections with curative attempt over a 12 month period after the publication of the 2011 guidelines. Outcome after their 1 year surveillance colonoscopy was examined to determine the incidence of new colorectal cancers and adenomatous polyps. Results: Of 75 (male = 47) patients (median (range) 71 (34-89)) were included. No new colorectal cancers were detected at 1 year surveillance colonoscopy. New adenomatous polyps were detected in 11 of the 75 patients (15%). Conclusion: The 2011 NICE guidelines include both a recommendation for full pre operative colonoscopy to detect synchronous tumours, and one and 5 yearly post operative colonoscopies to detect metachronous lesions. The evidence for the efficacy for early surveillance is unclear. We detected no new colorectal cancers and only 15% had new adenomatous polyps at one year indicating that early surveillance may not be warranted.

Link to more details or full-text:

 

Gefitinib for oesophageal cancer progressing after chemotherapy (COG): a phase 3, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial (2014)

Type of publication:
Randomised Controlled Trial

Author(s):
Dutton SJ,Ferry DR,Blazeby JM,Abbas H,Dahle-Smith A,Mansoor W,Thompson J,Harrison M,*Chatterjee A,Falk S,Garcia-Alonso A,Fyfe DW,Hubner RA,Gamble T,Peachey L,Davoudianfar M,Pearson SR,Julier P,Jankowski J,Kerr R,Petty RD

Citation:
Lancet Oncology, 07 2014, vol./is. 15/8(894-904), 1470-2045;1474-5488 (2014 Jul)

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Evidence is scarce for the effectiveness of therapies for oesophageal cancer progressing after chemotherapy, and no randomised trials have been reported. We aimed to compare gefitinib with placebo in previously treated advanced oesophageal cancer.METHODS: For this phase 3, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, eligible patients were adults with advanced oesophageal cancer or type I/II Siewert junctional tumours, histologically confirmed squamous-cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, who had progressed after chemotherapy, with WHO performance status 0-2, and with measurable or evaluable disease on CT scan. Participants were recruited from 48 UK centres and randomly assigned (1:1) to gefitinib (500 mg) or matching placebo by simple randomisation with no stratification factors. Patients, clinicians, and trial office staff were masked to treatment allocation. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient choice. The primary outcome was overall survival, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN29580179.FINDINGS: Between March 30, 2009, and Nov 18, 2011, 450 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (one patient withdrew consent; 224 patients allocated gefitinib and 225 allocated placebo included in analyses). Overall survival did not differ between groups (median 373 months, 95% CI 323-450, for gefitinib vs 367 months, 95% CI 297-437, for placebo; hazard ratio 090, 95% CI 074-109, p=029). Among the prespecified patient-reported outcomes (110 patients on gefitinib and 121 on placebo completed both baseline and 4 week questionnaires and were included in analyses), odynophagia was significantly better in the gefitinib group (adjusted mean difference -861, 95% CI -1449 to -273; n=227; p=0004), whereas the other outcomes were not significantly improved compared with placebo: global quality of life (269, 95% CI -233 to 772, n=231, p=0293), dysphagia (-318, 95% CI -836 to 200, n=231, p=0228), and eating (-411, 95% CI -996 to 175, n=229, p=0168). Median progression-free survival was marginally longer with gefitinib than it was with placebo (157 months, 95% CI 123-190 in the gefitinib group vs 117 months, 95% CI 107-137 in the placebo group; HR 080, 95% CI 066-096, p=0020). The most common toxicities were diarrhoea (36 [16%] of 224 patients on gefitinib vs six [3%] of 225 on placebo) and skin toxicity (46 [21%] vs two [1%]), both mostly grade 2. The commonest grade 3-4 toxicities were fatigue (24 [11%] vs 13 [6%] patients) and diarrhoea (13 [6%] vs two [1%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 109 (49%) of 224 patients assigned to gefitinib and 101 (45%) of 225 on placebo. 54 (24%) of patients in the gefitinib group achieved disease control at 8 weeks, as did 35 (16%) of patients on placebo (p=0023).INTERPRETATION: The use of gefitinib as a second-line treatment in oesophageal cancer in unselected patients does not improve overall survival, but has palliative benefits in a subgroup of these difficult-to-treat patients with short life expectancy. Future research should focus on identification of predictive biomarkers to identify this subgroup of benefiting patients.FUNDING: Cancer Research UK. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Link to more details or full-text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470204514700245

 

A prospective evaluation of undiagnosed joint hypermobility syndrome in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. (2014)

Author(s):
Fikree A, Grahame R, *Aktar R, Farmer AD, Hakim AJ, Morris JK, Knowles CH, Aziz Q

Citation:
Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 10 2014, vol./is. 12/10(1680-87.e2), 1542-3565;1542-7714 (2014 Oct)

Abstract:
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is a common connective tissue disorder characterized by joint hyperflexibility, dysautonomia, and chronic pain. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are reported in JHS patients attending rheumatology clinics, but the prevalence and symptom pattern of previously undiagnosed JHS in GI clinics are unknown.METHODS: By using validated questionnaires, a prospective cross-sectional study in secondary care GI clinics estimated the prevalence of JHS in new consecutively referred patients, compared GI symptoms in patients with and without JHS, and by using multiple regression determined whether the burden of GI symptoms in JHS patients was dependent on chronic pain, autonomic, psychological, and medication related factors. A positive control group consisted of JHS patients referred from rheumatology clinics with GI symptoms (JHS-Rh).RESULTS: From 552 patients recruited, 180 (33%) had JHS (JHS-G) and 372 did not (non-JHS-G). Forty-four JHS-Rh patients were included. JHS-G patients were more likely to be younger, female with poorer quality of life (P = .02) than non-JHS-G patients. After age and sex matching, heartburn (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.5; P = .01), water brash (OR, 2.02; CI, 1.3-3.1; P = .001), and postprandial fullness (OR, 1.74; CI, 1.2-2.6; P = .006) were more common in JHS-G vs non-JHS-G. Many upper and lower GI symptoms increased with increasing severity of JHS phenotype. Upper GI symptoms were dependent on autonomic and chronic pain factors.CONCLUSIONS: JHS is common in GI clinics, with increased burden of upper GI and extraintestinal symptoms and poorer quality of life. Recognition of JHS will facilitate multidisciplinary management of GI and extra-GI manifestations. Copyright 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.