The incidence of and risk factors for a repeat obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in the vaginal birth subsequent to a first episode of OASIS: a hospital-based cohort study (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Antonakou, Angeliki; *Papoutsis, Dimitrios; *Henderson, Karen; *Qadri, Zahid; *Tapp, Andrew

Citation:
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. Vol 295(5):1201-1209

Abstract:
PURPOSETo identify the incidence of and risk factors for a repeat obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in women who sustained an OASIS in their first vaginal delivery and have a subsequent vaginal birth.METHODS Data were collected retrospectively for women having had singleton cephalic presentation vaginal deliveries between 2007 and 2015. Women with breech deliveries, stillbirths, foetal congenital abnormalities and multiple pregnancies were excluded.RESULTSOver the study period, we identified 11,191 women who had a first vaginal birth, of which 603 (5.4%) sustained a first episode of OASIS. Of these women, 243 (40.2%) had a subsequent pregnancy with 190 (78.1%) having a second vaginal birth, 13 (5.4%) an emergency caesarean section (CS) delivery while in labour and 40 (16.5%) an elective CS delivery. In those who delivered vaginally, 16 (8.4%) women had a repeat OASIS. After adjusting for several confounding factors, it was found that the risk of a repeat OASIS was associated with the use of epidural analgesia (OR = 3.66; 95% CI:1.14-11.71) and an episiotomy in the first delivery (OR = 3.93; 95% CI:1. 03-15.02) and a short labour (<2.8 h) in the second delivery (OR = 14.55; 95% CI: 1.83-115.75). The time interval between the two vaginal births was not associated with any increased risk of a repeat OASIS.CONCLUSION We found that 8.4% of women sustained a repeat OASIS in a subsequent vaginal birth with this risk being associated with the presence of a short second labour and certain features from the first labour.

Perineal support and risk of obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a Delphi survey (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Ismail KM, Paschetta E, *Papoutsis D, Freeman RM

Citation:
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2015 Feb; Vol. 94 (2), pp. 165-74. Date of Electronic Publication: 2014 Dec 30.

Abstract:
Objective: To explore the views of a multidisciplinary group of experts and achieve consensus on the importance of perineal support in preventing obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS).
Design: A three-generational Delphi survey.
Setting: A UK-wide survey of experts.
Population: A panel of 20 members consisting of obstetricians, midwives and urogynecologists recommended by UK professional bodies.
Methods: A 58-item web-based questionnaire was sent to all participants who were asked to anonymously rate the importance of each item on a six-point Likert scale. They were asked to rate their level of agreement on statements related to hands-on/hands-poised techniques, the association of hands-poised/hands-off approach with OASIS, the need to implement perineal support and the need to improve the evidence to support it. Systematic feedback of responses from previous rounds was provided to participants.
Main Outcome Measures: To achieve consensus on key areas related to perineal support.
Results: The response rate was 100% in all three iterations. There was consensus that current UK practice regarding perineal protection was not based on robust evidence. The respondents agreed that hands-poised/hands-off and OASIS are causally related and that hands-poised was misinterpreted by clinicians as hands-off. Although 90% of experts agreed that some form of randomized trial was required and that all would be prepared to take part, there was also consensus (75%) that in the meantime, hands-on should be the recommended technique.
Conclusions: Our results highlight the current lack of evidence to support policies of perineal support at time of birth and the need to address this controversial issue.

Postpartum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a twin pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia-eclampsia: Case report (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Papoutsis D., *El-Attabi N., *Sizer A.

Citation:
Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2014, vol./is. 41/3(351-353), 0390-6663 (2014)

Abstract:
This is the second case in literature of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a twin pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia-eclampsia. A 27-year-old primigravida with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy was admitted at 36 weeks of gestation for induction of labour due to preeclampsia. On the second day postpartum, the patient developed severe hypertension, visual symptoms, confusion, headache, and eclamptic fits. Head computed tomography (CT) showed hypodense basal ganglia lesions. The patient was treated in the intensive treatment unit with hydralazine and labetalol infusions and anticonvulsants. Five days later, there was complete clinical improvement and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. The patient was discharged 11 days post-delivery. Diagnosis of PRES is based on the presence of clinical features of acute neurologic compromise, abnormal neuroimaging findings, and complete reversibility of findings after prompt treatment. Early recognition and proper treatment result in complete reversibility of this condition.

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Top 15 research priorities for preterm birth with clinicians and service users’ involvement-outcomes from a james lind alliance priority setting partnership (2014)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Uhm S., Alderdice F., Chambers B., Gyte G., Gale C., Duley L., James C.P., David A.L., McNeill J., Turner M.A., Shennan A., *Deshpande S., Crowe S., Chivers Z., Brady I., Oliver S.

Citation:
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, June 2014, vol./is. 99/(A158), 1359-2998 (June 2014)

Abstract:
Background Preterm birth is the single most important determinant of adverse infant outcomes in terms of survival, quality of life, psychosocial and emotional impact on the family, and health care costs. Research agenda in this area has been determined primarily by researchers, and the processes for priority setting in research have often lacked transparency. Objectives To identify 15 most important priorities for future research for practitioners and service users in the area of preterm birth. Methods A priority setting partnership was established by involving clinicians, adults who were born preterm, and parents and families with experience of preterm birth. Research uncertainties were gathered from surveys of service users and clinicians, and analyses of systematic reviews and clinical guidance, and then prioritised in a transparent process, using a methodology advocated by the James Lind Alliance. Results 593 uncertainties were submitted by 386 respondents and 52 were identified from literature reviews. After merging similar questions, a long list of 104 questions were distributed for voting. The 30 most popular items were then prioritised at a workshop. The top 15 research priorities included prevention of preterm birth, management of neonatal infection, necrotising enterocolitis, pain and lung damage, care package at discharge, feeding strategies, pre-eclampsia, emotional and practical support, attachment and bonding, premature rupture of membranes and best time for cord clamping. Conclusions These top research priorities in preterm birth provide guidance for researchers and funding bodies to ensure that future research addresses questions that are important to both clinicians and service users.

Link to more details or full-text: http://fn.bmj.com/content/99/Suppl_1/A158.1.abstract

 

Does traction on the cervix under anaesthesia tell us when to perform a concomitant hysterectomy? A 2-year follow-up of a prospective cohort study (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Madhu C., *Foon R., Agur W., Smith P.

Citation:
International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, September 2014, vol./is. 25/9(1213-1217), 0937-3462;1433-3023 (September 2014)

Abstract:
Introduction and hypothesis: Variations exist in urogynaecological practice to decide on hysterectomy in managing prolapse. This study evaluates the outcomes of uterine preservation during anterior colporrhaphy with apparent uterine descent with cervical traction under anaesthesia. We hypothesize that cervical traction should not be used to assess uterine prolapse. Methods: Thirty-five women opting for surgery for symptomatic anterior prolapse (> stage 2) with no uterine prolapse (point C at -3 or above) were recruited. ”Validated cervical traction” was applied under anaesthesia. Only an anterior repair was performed. Incontinence Modular Questionnaire Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) questionnaires were used for follow-up. Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Stage 2 uterine prolapse (POPQ) was demonstrated in all women with traction under anaesthesia. Follow-up was possible in 29 women, 5 did not respond and 1 needed a hysterectomy at 6 months (2.86 %, 95 % CI 0.07-14.91 %). The mean follow-up time was 23 months (range: 13-34 months). There was a significant reduction in the ICIQ-VS scores from 22.7 (pre-operative) to 7.97 at 23 months (p

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A rare obstetric emergency: acute uterine torsion in a 32-week pregnancy (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Moores KL, *Wood MG, *Foon RP

Citation:
BMJ Case Reports, 2014, vol./is. 2014/, 1757-790X (2014)

Abstract:
Uterine torsion is rare in pregnancy and the cause in most cases is unknown. It is associated with fetal compromise, with perinatal mortality reported to be around 12%. Our case describes an acute torsion, presenting in pregnancy with severe abdominal pain and vomiting with a viable 32-week gestation. Emergency caesarean section was performed and the 180degree uterine torsion was diagnosed intraoperatively. Posterior hysterotomy was required for delivery prior to detorsion of the uterus. This report describes that prompt recognition and intraoperative vigilance can achieve a successful maternal and fetal outcome in this rare and difficult obstetric scenario.

Link to more details or full-text: http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2014/bcr-2013-202974.abstract

Torrential epistaxis in the third trimester: a management conundrum. (2014)

Author(s):
Crunkhorn RE, *Mitchell-Innes A, Muzaffar J

Citation:
BMJ Case Reports, 2014, vol./is. 2014/, 1757-790X (2014)

Abstract:
Although epistaxis is common during pregnancy, large volume epistaxis is rare. Many standard epistaxis management options are limited in pregnancy due to absolute or relative contraindications. Ear, nose and throat surgeons need to be aware of what options can be used safely and effectively. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman, 32 weeks pregnant, who was admitted with heavy epistaxis refractive to conservative management. Several potential interventions including bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) and Floseal were contraindicated or involved additional risk in pregnancy necessitating unorthodox management. This challenging case highlights suitable alternatives for managing large volume epistaxis during pregnancy, as well as discussing the differential diagnosis and relevant investigations. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

Link to full-text: http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2014/bcr-2014-203892.abstract