Type of publication:
Humphries S.E.; Cooper J.A.; Seed M.; *Capps N.; Durrington P.N.; Jones B.; McDowell I.F.W.; Soran H.; Neil
Atherosclerosis Supplements; 2017; vol. 28, Pages 41-46
Background: Guidelines for the management of patients with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) recommend the use of high intensity statin therapy to reduce subsequent risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Here we compare changes in CHD mortality in patients with heterozygous (FH) pre 1992 before lipid-lowering therapy with statins was used routinely, and in the periods 1992-2008 and 2008 till the present. Methods: Analysis used 1903 Definite (DFH) and 1650 Possible (PFH) patients (51% women) aged 20-79 years, recruited from 21 lipid clinics in the United Kingdom and followed prospectively between 1980-1991 (6627 personyears) 1992-2008 (43117 person-years) and 2009-2016 (17317 person-years). The excess CHD standardised mortality ratio (SMR) compared to the population in England and Wales was calculated (with 95% Confidence intervals). Results: There were 252 deaths from CHD. Overall, treated DFH patients had a higher CHD SMR than PFH patients (post 1991 35% higher 2.40 (2.00-2.86) vs 1.78 (1.44-2.19) p = 0.03). In treated DFH patients with previous CHD the CHD SMR was significantly elevated at all time periods but in men fell from a 4.83-fold excess (2.32-8.89) pre-1992 to 4.66 (3.46-6.14) in 1992-2008 and 2.51 (1.01-5.17) post 2008, while in women these values were 7.23 (2.65-15.73), 4.42 (2.70-6.82) and 6.34 (2.06-14.81)). In treated DFH men with no previous CHD the CHD SMR fell over the three time periods, and was not significantly elevated post 2008 (0.89 (0.29-2.08), but in women the SMR remained significantly elevated (post 2008 3.65 (1.75-6.72)). Conclusions: The data confirm the major benefit in CHD mortality associated with statin treatment, but suggest that FH patients with pre-existing disease, and women with FH may not be being treated adequately.