Evaluating the value of intrapartum fetal scalp blood sampling to predict adverse neonatal outcomes: A UK multicentre observational study (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Al Wattar, Bassel H; Lakhiani, Aarti; Sacco, Adalina; Siddharth, Aditi; Bain, Alexandra; Calvia, Alexandra; Kamran, Atiyah; Tiong, Bing; Warwick, Bethan; MacMahon, Caroline; Marcus, Diana; Long, Emma; Coyle, Gillian; Lever, Gillian Elizabeth; Michel, Gina; Gopal, Gomathy; Baig, Hana; Price, Hannah Louise; Badri, Hawra; Stevenson, Helen; Hoyte, Helene; Malik, Humaira; Edwards, Jade; Hartley, Jennifer; Hemers, Jennifer; Tamblyn, Jennifer; Dalton, John Alexander William; Frost, Jonathan; Subba, Kamana; Baxter, Kathryn; Sivakumar, Kavitha; Murphy, Kelly; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Bladon, Laura Rachel; Kasaven, Lorraine; Manning, Louisa; Prior, Mathew; Ghosh, Mausumi; Couch, Melanie; Altunel, Melis; Pearce, Melissa; Cocker, Michael; Stephanou, Michael; Jie, Michelle; Mistry, Minesh; Wahby, Mohammed Osama; Saidi, Nabila Shahid; Ramshaw, Nicola Louise; Tempest, Nicola; Parker, Nina; Tan, Phoebe L; Johnson, Racheal Louise; Harris, Rachel; Tildesley, Rachel; Ram, Ramya; Painuly, Ritu; Cuffolo, Romana; Bugeja, Roberta; Ngadze, Rose; Grainger, Rosie; Gurung, Sabitra; Mak, Sammy; Farrell, Sara; Cowey, Sarah; Neary, Sarah; Quinn, Sarah; Nijjar, Simrit Kaur; Kenyon, Sophie; Lamb, Stephanie; Tracey, Susan; Lee, Tara; Kinsella, Therese; Davidson, Trecia; Corr, Trent; Sampson, Uzo; McQueen, Victoria; *Parry-Smith, William; Castling, Zora; AB-FAB study group

Citation:
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology; Sep 2019; vol. 240 ; p. 62-67

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) as an adjunct test to cardiotocography, to predict adverse neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN A multicentre service evaluation observational study in forty-four maternity units in the UK. We collected data retrospectively on pregnant women with singleton pregnancy who received FBS in labour using a standardised data collection tool. The primary outcome was prediction of neonatal acidaemia diagnosed as umbilical cord arterial pH < 7.05, the secondary outcomes were the prediction of Apgar scores<7 at 1st and 5th minutes and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We evaluated the correlation between the last FBS blood gas before birth and the umbilical cord blood and adjusted for time intervals. We constructed 2 × 2 tables to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and generated receiver operating curves to report on the Area Under the Curve (AUC). RESULTS In total, 1422 samples were included in the analysis; pH values showed no correlation (r = 0.001, p = 0.9) in samples obtained within an hour (n = 314), or within half an hour from birth (n = 115) (r=-0.003, p = 0.9). A suboptimal FBS pH value (<7.25) had a poor sensitivity (22%) and PPV (4.9%) to predict neonatal acidaemia with high specificity (87.3%) and NPV (97.4%). Similar performance was noted to predict Apgar scores <7 at 1st (sensitivity 14.5%, specificity 87.5%, PPV 23.4%, NPV 79.6%) and 5th minute (sensitivity 20.3%, specificity 87.4%, PPV 7.6%, NPV 95.6%), and admission to NICU (sensitivity 20.3%, specificity 87.5%, PPV 13.3%, NPV 92.1%). The AUC for FBS pH to predict neonatal acidaemia was 0.59 (95%CI 0.59-0.68, p = 0.3) with similar performance to predict Apgar scores<7 at 1st minute (AUC 0.55, 95%CI 0.51-0.59, p = 0.004), 5th minute (AUC 0.55, 95%CI 0.48-0.62, p = 0.13), and admission to NICU (AUC 0.58, 95%CI 0.52-0.64, p = 0.002). Forty-one neonates had acidaemia (2.8%, 41/1422) at birth. There was no significant correlation in pH values between the FBS and the umbilical cord blood in this subgroup adjusted for sampling time intervals (r = 0.03, p = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS As an adjunct tool to cardiotocography, FBS offered limited value to predict neonatal acidaemia, low Apgar Scores and admission to NICU.

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Uterotonic agents for first-line treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: a network meta-analysis (2020)

Type of publication:
Systematic Review

Author(s):
*Parry Smith, William R; Papadopoulou, Argyro; Thomas, Eleanor; Tobias, Aurelio; Price, Malcolm J; Meher, Shireen; Alfirevic, Zarko; Weeks, Andrew D; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Widmer, Mariana; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Vogel, Joshua P; Althabe, Fernando; Coomarasamy, Arri; Gallos, Ioannis D

Citation:
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Nov 2020; vol. 11 ; p. CD012754

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), defined as a blood loss of 500 mL or more after birth, is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all women giving birth should receive a prophylactic uterotonic agent. Despite the routine administration of a uterotonic agent for prevention, PPH remains a common complication causing one-quarter of all maternal deaths globally. When prevention fails and PPH occurs, further administration of uterotonic agents as ‘first-line’ treatment is recommended. However, there is uncertainty about which uterotonic agent is best for the ‘first-line’ treatment of PPH. OBJECTIVES To identify the most effective uterotonic agent(s) with the least side-effects for PPH treatment, and generate a meaningful ranking among all available agents according to their relative effectiveness and side-effect profile.SEARCH METHODSWe searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth’s Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (5 May 2020), and the reference lists of all retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA All randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of uterotonic agents with other uterotonic agents for the treatment of PPH were eligible for inclusion.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed all trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed each trial for risk of bias. Our primary outcomes were additional blood loss of 500 mL or more after recruitment to the trial until cessation of active bleeding and the composite outcome of maternal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcomes included blood loss-related outcomes, morbidity outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes. We performed pairwise meta-analyses and indirect comparisons, where possible, but due to the limited number of included studies, we were unable to conduct the planned network meta-analysis. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence.MAIN RESULTS Seven trials, involving 3738 women in 10 countries, were included in this review. All trials were conducted in hospital settings. Randomised women gave birth vaginally, except in one small trial, where women gave birth either vaginally or by caesarean section. Across the seven trials (14 trial arms) the following agents were used: six trial arms used oxytocin alone; four trial arms used misoprostol plus oxytocin; three trial arms used misoprostol; one trial arm used Syntometrine® (oxytocin and ergometrine fixed-dose combination) plus oxytocin infusion. Pairwise meta-analysis of two trials (1787 participants), suggests that misoprostol, as first-line treatment uterotonic agent, probably increases the risk of blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 2.14, moderate-certainty) compared with oxytocin. Low-certainty evidence suggests that misoprostol administration may increase the incidence of additional blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 2.57, 95% CI 1.00 to 6.64). The data comparing misoprostol with oxytocin is imprecise, with a wide range of treatment effects for the additional blood loss of 500 mL or more (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.69 to 4.02, low-certainty), maternal death or severe morbidity (RR 1.98, 95% CI 0.36 to 10.72, low-certainty, based on one study n = 809 participants, as the second study had zero events), and the use of additional uterotonics (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.94, low-certainty). The risk of side-effects may be increased with the use of misoprostol compared with oxytocin: vomiting (2 trials, 1787 participants, RR 2.47, 95% CI 1.37 to 4.47, high-certainty) and fever (2 trials, 1787 participants, RR 3.43, 95% CI 0.65 to 18.18, low-certainty). According to pairwise meta-analysis of four trials (1881 participants) generating high-certainty evidence, misoprostol plus oxytocin makes little or no difference to the use of additional uterotonics (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.05) and to blood transfusion (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.17) compared with oxytocin. We cannot rule out an important benefit of using the misoprostol plus oxytocin combination over oxytocin alone, for additional blood loss of 500 mL or more (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.06, moderate-certainty). We also cannot rule out important benefits or harms for additional blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.34, moderate-certainty, 3 trials, 1814 participants, one study reported zero events), and maternal mortality or severe morbidity (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.39, moderate-certainty). Misoprostol plus oxytocin increases the incidence of fever (4 trials, 1866 participants, RR 3.07, 95% CI 2.62 to 3.61, high-certainty), and vomiting (2 trials, 1482 participants, RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.95, high-certainty) compared with oxytocin alone. For all outcomes of interest, the available evidence on the misoprostol versus Syntometrine® plus oxytocin combination was of very low-certainty and these effects remain unclear. Although network meta-analysis was not performed, we were able to compare the misoprostol plus oxytocin combination with misoprostol alone through the common comparator of oxytocin. This indirect comparison suggests that the misoprostol plus oxytocin combination probably reduces the risk of blood transfusion (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.99, moderate-certainty) and may reduce the risk of additional blood loss of 1000 mL or more (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.89, low-certainty) compared with misoprostol alone. The combination makes little or no difference to vomiting (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.59, high-certainty) compared with misoprostol alone. Misoprostol plus oxytocin compared to misoprostol alone are compatible with a wide range of treatment effects for additional blood loss of 500 mL or more (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.26, low-certainty), maternal mortality or severe morbidity (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.07 to 4.24, low-certainty), use of additional uterotonics (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.73, low-certainty), and fever (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.17 to 4.77, low-certainty). AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS The available evidence suggests that oxytocin used as first-line treatment of PPH probably is more effective than misoprostol with less side-effects. Adding misoprostol to the conventional treatment of oxytocin probably makes little or no difference to effectiveness outcomes, and is also associated with more side-effects. The evidence for most uterotonic agents used as first-line treatment of PPH is limited, with no evidence found for commonly used agents, such as injectable prostaglandins, ergometrine, and Syntometrine®.

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Babies in occiput posterior position are significantly more likely to require an emergency cesarean birth compared with babies in occiput transverse position in the second stage of labor: A prospective observational study (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Tempest, Nicola; Lane, Steven; Hapangama, Dharani; UK Audit Ressearch Trainee Collaborative in Obstetrics, Gynecology (UK-ARCOG) (*William Parry-Smith is a core committee member of UK-ARCOG)

Citation:
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; Apr 2020; vol. 99 (no. 4); p. 537-545

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION Malposition complicates 2-13% of births at delivery, leading to increased obstetric interventions (cesarean section and instrumental delivery) and higher rates of adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. Limited data are available regarding the likely rates of obstetric intervention and subsequent neonatal and maternal outcomes of births with babies in persistent occiput posterior position vs those in persistent occiput transverse position. The UK Audit and Research trainee Collaborative in Obstetrics and Gynecology (UK-ARCOG) network set out to collect data prospectively at delivery on final mode of delivery and immediate outcomes.MATERIAL AND METHODS The UK-ARCOG network collected data on all births with malposition of the fetal head complicating the second stage of labor (n = 838) (occiput posterior/occiput transverse) requiring rotational vaginal operative birth or emergency cesarean to expedite delivery across 66 participating UK National Health Service maternity units over a 1-month period. The outcomes considered were the need for emergency cesarean section without a trial of instrumental delivery, success of the first method of delivery employed in achieving a vaginal delivery and neonatal/maternal outcomes.RESULTS Obstetricians regarded assistance with an operative vaginal delivery method to be unsafe in 15% of babies in occiput posterior position and 6.1% of babies in occiput transverse position, and they were delivered by primary emergency cesarean section. When vaginal delivery was deemed safe (defined as attempted assisted vaginal rotational delivery), the first instrument attempted was successful in 74.4% of occiput posterior babies and 79.3% of occiput transverse babies.CONCLUSIONS Our data facilitates decision making by obstetricians to increase safety of assisted rotational operative delivery of a malpositioned baby at initial assessment and in counseling women. Until data from a well-designed randomized controlled trial of instrumental delivery vs emergency cesarean section are available, this manuscript provides contemporaneous national data from a high resource setting within a structured training program, to assist the selection of an appropriate instrument/method for the delivery of a malpositioned baby.

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The FAST-M complex intervention for the detection and management of maternal sepsis in low-resource settings: a multi-site evaluation (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Cheshire, James; Jones, Laura; Munthali, Laura; Kamphinga, Christopher; Liyaya, Harry; Phiri, Tarcizius; *Parry-Smith, William; Dunlop, Catherine; Makwenda, Charles; Devall, Adam James; Tobias, Aurelio; Nambiar, Bejoy; Merriel, Abi; Williams, Helen Marie; Gallos, Ioannis; Wilson, Amie; Coomarasamy, Arri; Lissauer, David

Citation:
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology; Feb 2021 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the implementation of the FAST-M complex intervention was feasible and improved the recognition and management of maternal sepsis in a low-resource setting.DESIGNA before and after design.SETTINGFifteen government healthcare facilities in Malawi.POPULATION Women suspected of having maternal sepsis.METHODS The FAST-M complex intervention consisted of the following components: i) the FAST-M maternal sepsis treatment bundle and ii) the FAST-M implementation programme. Performance of selected process outcomes were compared between a two month baseline phase and six month intervention phase with compliance used as a proxy measure of feasibility.MAIN OUTCOME RESULT Compliance with vital sign recording and use of the FAST-M maternal sepsis bundle.RESULTS Following implementation of the FAST-M intervention, women were more likely to have a complete set of vital signs taken on admission to the wards (0/163 (0%) vs. 169/252 (67.1%), p<0.001). Recognition of suspected maternal sepsis improved with more cases identified following the intervention (12/106 (11.3%) vs. 107/166 (64.5%), p<0.001). Sepsis management improved, with women more likely to receive all components of the FAST-M treatment bundle within one hour of recognition (0/12 (0%) vs. 21/107 (19.6%), p=0.091). In particular women were more likely to receive antibiotics (3/12 (25.0%) vs. 72/107 (67.3%), p=0.004) within one hour of recognition of suspected sepsis.CONCLUSION Implementation of the FAST-M complex intervention was feasible and led to the improved recognition and management of suspected maternal sepsis in a low-resource setting such as Malawi.

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Perivascular epitheloid cell tumor and mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: an unknown co-existence (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Dimitrios Papoutsis, *Banchhita Sahu, *Joanna Kelly, Angeliki Antonakou

Citation:
Oxford Medical Case Reports, Volume 2019, Issue 1, January 2019

Abstract:
A 67-year-old woman with post-menopausal bleeding and a suspicious endocervical mass was referred to gynaecology outpatients’ for diagnosis and management. Cervical punch biopsies taken showed a benign cervical perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa), with MRI imaging and PET-CT scan indicating a 3–4 cm endocervical tumour with malignant features. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and the surgical specimen histopathology demonstrated a residual benign PEComa and a stage IIB mesonephric adenocarcinoma (MNA) of the cervix. There is no disease recurrence 12 months after surgery. Cervical PEComas are extremely rare tumours of mesenchymal origin deriving from the perivascular epithelioid cells with only 14 cases described so far. Cervical MNAs are rare tumours originating from the remnants of the mesonephric duct of Wolff with only 40 cases reported. Our case adds to the existing literature and highlights the challenges with regard to preoperative diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

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Obstetric and gynaecology trainees’ knowledge of paediatric and adolescent gynaecology services in the UK: A national qualitative thematic analysis (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Ritchie, J K; *Sahu, B; Wood, P L

Citation:
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology; Apr 2019; vol. 235 ; p. 30-35

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The British Society of Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology (BritSPAG) was created in 2000 with specific aims to include raising the profile of paediatric and adolescent gynaecology (PAG) within the United Kingdom (UK). The Society has since developed a set of clinical standards for all acute hospitals providing gynaecological services to enable successful provision of paediatric and adolescent gynaecology care.AIMSTo determine the depth of knowledge that obstetric and gynaecology trainees have with regards to the PAG services provided at their Hospital, reflecting how widely PAG services have had an impact on trainees.METHOD: The national survey was distributed to all deaneries in the UK for circulation to all their trainees via e mail during Nov 2017-March 2018.RESULTS: 28% of the trainees said there was a PAG clinic at their hospital, 46.9% did not have a clinic and 24.7% were unsure. 41.6% of the respondents were aware of BritSPAG, however only 10.4% were aware of the BritSPAG clinical standards for service planning with regards to PAG clinics. Nearly half were aware of the PAG specialist centre for their region but only 6.5% were aware of the BritSPAG UK map of services. A large majority (93.24%) didn’t believe that trainees in O&G received adequate exposure to PAG in their training.CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest and first national survey to seek obstetric and gynaecology trainees’ thoughts on the provision of PAG training in the UK today. Given that only 28% of trainees answering said that they were aware of a PAG clinic at their hospital, this indicates not only that many hospitals did not have a dedicated PAG clinic but more worryingly five of the trainees were not aware of the existence of a confirmed PAG clinic at their hospital, and therefore are potentially losing out on training opportunities. Disappointingly the results of our survey reveal that trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology still have very little experience or exposure to PAG during their training despite there being opportunities to do so.

Veregen® ointment as a potential novel treatment for usual type vulval intraepithelial neoplasia: a single center randomised control study (2021)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Jason Yap, Daniel Slade, Harriet Goddard, Christopher Dawson, Raji Ganesan, Shireen Velangi, *Banchhita Sahu, Baljit Kaur, Ana Hughes, David Luesley

Citation:
BJOG [accepted for publication Oct 2020 – not yet published]

Abstract:
Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of Veregen® ointment against placebo in the treatment of usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN). Design A Phase II randomised control trial. Setting A tertiary gynaecological oncology referral center. Population All women diagnosed with primary and recurrence uVIN. Methods Eligible patients were randomised to receive either Veregen® or placebo ointment (applied 3 times daily for 16 weeks), and were followed up at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 52 weeks. Main outcome measures Outcome measures, recorded at 16 and 32 weeks, were histological (HR) and clinical (CR) response (as measured by ≥30% reduction in the sum of the longest diameter of all lesions when compared to baseline), toxicity and changes in quality of life and pain scores. Results 26 patients were randomised and all 13 patients who received Veregen® showed either complete (n=5) or partial (n=8) CR with a trend towards an improvement in baseline symptoms. In placebo group, 3 patients had complete CR, 2 had partial CR and 6 had stable disease. Patients in the Veregen® group showed a significant improvement in CR as compared to the placebo group (P=0.0026). There was no evidence of difference in HR and toxicity reported in both groups. Conclusion Our study indicates that Veregen application is safe and leads to at least a partial clinical resolution of uVIN lesions and symptoms improvement, thus warranting a phase III multi-centre RCT.

Folic Acid Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Hot Flushes: Phase III Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial (2021)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Ayman Ewies, Ikhlaq Ahmed, Farook Alazzawi, Joan Pitkin, Pratima Gupta, Mojca Persic, *Banchhita Sahu, Alaa El-Ghobashy, Lisa Barraclough, Jacqueline Woodman, Jaspreet Babrah, Sarah Bowdem, Deborah Stocken, Lucinda Billingham, Sudha Sundar, Daniel Rea

Citation:
BJOG [accepted for publication Feb 2021 – not yet published]

Abstract:
Objective: To assess whether folic acid supplementation ameliorates hot flushes. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Setting: Nine hospitals in England. Population: Postmenopausal women experiencing ≥50 hot flushes weekly. Methods: Women (n=164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive folic acid 5mg tablet or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Participants recorded frequency and severity of hot flushes in Sloan Diary daily and completed Greene Climacteric and Utian Quality of Life (UQoL) Scales at 4-weekly intervals. Main Outcome Measures: The change in daily Hot Flush Score at week-12 from randomisation based on Sloan Diary Composite Score B calculation. Results: Data of 143 (87%) women was available for the primary outcome. The mean change (SD) in Hot Flush Score at week-12 was -6.98 (10.30) and -4.57 (9.46) for folic acid and placebo group, respectively. The difference between groups in the mean change was -2.41 (95% CI: -5.68, 0.87), p=0.149 and in the adjusted mean change was -2.61 (95% CI: -5.72, 0.49) with p=0.098. There was an increased benefit in the folic acid group regarding changes in total and emotional UQoL scores at week-8 when compared with placebo. The difference in the mean change from baseline was 5.22 (95% CI: 1.16, 9.28) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.23, 3.52) for total and emotional score, respectively. Conclusions: Folic acid had a greater benefit in reducing Hot Flush Score over 12 weeks in postmenopausal women when compared with placebo; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Definitive evidence of benefit requires a larger study.

Statins as Potential Chemoprevention or Therapeutic Agents in Cancer: a Model for Evaluating Repurposed Drugs (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Joharatnam-Hogan N, Alexandre L, Yarmolinsky J, *Lake B, *Capps N, Martin RM, Ring A, Cafferty F, Langley RE

Citation:
Current Oncology Reports, 13 Feb 2021, 23(3):29

Abstract:
Purpose of review: Repurposing established medicines for a new therapeutic indication potentially has important global and societal impact. The high costs and slow pace of new drug development have increased interest in more cost-effective repurposed drugs, particularly in the cancer arena. The conventional drug development pathway and evidence framework are not designed for drug repurposing and there is currently no consensus on establishing the evidence base before embarking on a large, resource intensive, potential practice changing phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT). Numerous observational studies have suggested a potential role for statins as a repurposed drug for cancer chemoprevention and therapy, and we review the strength of the cumulative evidence here.
Recent findings: In the setting of cancer, a potential repurposed drug, like statins, typically goes through a cyclical history, with initial use for several years in another disease setting, prior to epidemiological research identifying a possible chemo-protective effect. However, further information is required, including review of RCT data in the initial disease setting with exploration of cancer outcomes. Additionally, more contemporary methods should be considered, such as Mendelian randomization and pharmaco-epidemiological research with “target” trial design emulation using electronic health records. Pre-clinical and traditional observational data potentially support the role of statins in the treatment of cancer; however, randomised trial evidence is not supportive. Evaluation of contemporary methods provides little added support for the use of statin therapy in cancer. We provide complementary evidence of alternative study designs to enable a robust critical appraisal from a number of sources of the go/no-go decision for a prospective phase III RCT of statins in the treatment of cancer.

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Rothia mucilaginosa: a case of septic arthritis in a native knee and review of the literature (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Daoub, Ahmed; *Ansari, Hamza; *Orfanos, George; *Barnett, Andrew

Citation:
BMJ case reports; Jan 2021; vol. 14 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Rothia mucilaginosa is a Gram-positive aerobic coccus usually found in the oral and respiratory tract. Septic arthritis is an uncommon condition, but is an orthopaedic emergency. A rare case of knee septic arthritis due to R. mucilaginosa is presented. Patient management and outcomes are discussed, and learning points from this case are outlined to help manage any further cases that may arise.

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