Hypertension in COPD: A review of current practice (2020)

Type of publication:
Poster presentation

Author(s):
*Richard Cooper, *Wong Po Fung, *Alison Perry, *James Greenway, *Harmesh Moudgil, *Koottalai Srinivasan, *Annabel Makan, *Emma Crawford, *Nawaid Ahmad

Citation:
European Respiratory Journal 2020; 56: Suppl. 64, 184.

Abstract:
Background: Patients with COPD are susceptible to cardiovascular events and a recent review article has outlined management of Hypertension in the COPD population [Finks S et al. N Engl J Med 2020;382:353-63]. It is not known how the authors’ suggestions translate into practice, so review was undertaken of a UK District General Hospital population.
Aims: The aim was to review management of hypertensive COPD patients; choice of anti-hypertensive medication, and correlations with morbidity and mortality
Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all COPD patients who presented to hospital with an exacerbation between October and December 2019. Patients without a history of hypertension were excluded.
Results: 151 patients were admitted during this period. 71/151 were known hypertension. 52% were female, Mean Age (SD) 74 (10) years. 83% (n=59/71) were on anti-hypertensive medication/s (AH) of which 44% (n=26/59), 42% (n=25/59), 12% (7/59) and 2% (1/59) were on one, two, three and four AH respectively. 42% (30/71) patients had an exacerbation in the last 12 months and 97% (29/30) were on ≥1 AH. Unadjusted 30 day mortality was 11% (n=8/71) of which 88% (7/8) were on ≥1 AH. n=2/3 patients on beta blockers, n=2/5 on angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), n=6/12 on calcium channel blockers (CCB), n=3/4 on ACE-inhibitors and 1/1 on Alpha blocker as a single AH had an exacerbation in the last 12 months. More patients on loop diuretics (LD) had chronic type 2 respiratory failure (n=5) or exacerbations in the last 12 months (n=10).
Conclusions:
1.CCB is the most commonly used AH agent
2.Patients on ARBs were least likely to exacerbate
3.LD may contribute to more exacerbations and chronic type 2 respiratory failure

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Sex differences in cardiovascular morbidity associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia: A retrospective cohort study of the UK Simon Broome register linked to national hospital records (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Barbara Iyen, Nadeem Qureshi, Stephen Weng, Paul Roderick, Joe Kai, *Nigel Capps, Paul N. Durrington, Ian FW. McDowell, Handrean Soran, Andrew Neil, Steve E. Humphries

Citation:
Atherosclerosis, Nov 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Background and aims: The UK Simon Broome (SB) familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) register previously reported 3-fold higher standardised mortality ratio for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women compared to men from 2009 to 2015. Here we examined sex differences in CVD morbidity in FH by national linkage of the SB register with Hospital Episode Statistics (HES).
Methods: Of 3553 FH individuals in the SB register (aged 20–79 years at registration), 2988 (52.5% women) had linked HES records. Standardised Morbidity Ratios (SMbR) compared to an age and sex-matched UK general practice population were calculated [95% confidence intervals] for first CVD hospitalisation in HES (a composite of coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), stable or unstable angina, stroke, TIA, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), heart failure, coronary revascularisation interventions).
Results: At registration, men had significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of previous CHD (24.8% vs 17.6%), previous MI (13.2% vs 6.3%), and were commenced on lipid-lowering treatment at a younger age than women (37.5 years vs 42.3 years). The SMbR for composite CVD was 6.83 (6.33–7.37) in men and 7.55 (6.99–8.15) in women. In individuals aged 30–50 years, SMbR in women was 50% higher than in men (15.04 [12.98–17.42] vs 10.03 [9.01–11.17]). In individuals >50 years, SMbR was 33% higher in women than men (6.11 [5.57–6.70] vs 4.59 [4.08–5.15]).
Conclusions: Excess CVD morbidity due to FH remains markedly elevated in women at all ages, but especially those aged 30–50 years. This highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and optimisation of lipid-lowering risk factor management for all FH patients, with particular attention to young women with FH.

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Sinecatechins ointment as a potential novel treatment for usual type vulval intraepithelial neoplasia: a single center double-blind randomised control study (2020)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Yap, Jason; Slade, Daniel; Goddard, Harriet; Dawson, Christopher; Ganesan, Raji; Velangi, Shireen; *Sahu, Banchhita; Kaur, Baljit; Hughes, Ana; Luesley, David

Citation:
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology; Oct 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
OBJECTIVETo compare the safety and efficacy of 10% sinecatechins (Veregen®) ointment against placebo in the treatment of usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN).DESIGNA Phase II double-blind randomised control trial.SETTINGA tertiary gynaecological oncology referral center.POPULATIONAll women diagnosed with primary and recurrent uVIN.METHODSEligible patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either sinecatechins or placebo ointment (applied 3 times daily for 16 weeks), and were followed up at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 52 weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESThe primary outcome measure, recorded at 16 and 32 weeks, was histological response (HR). Secondary outcome measures included clinical (CR) response, toxicity, quality of life and pain scores.RESULTSThere was no observed difference in HR between the two arms. However, of the 26 patients who were randomised, all 13 patients who received sinecatechins showed either complete (n=5) or partial (n=8) CR, when best CR was evaluated. In placebo group, 3 patients had complete CR, 2 had partial CR, 6 had stable disease and 2 were lost to follow up. Patients in the sinecatechins group showed a statistically significant improvement in best observed CR as compared to the placebo group (P=0.002). There was no difference in toxicity reported in both groups.CONCLUSIONAlthough we did not observe a difference in HR between the two treatment arms, we found that 10% sinecatechins application is safe and shows promise in inducing clinical resolution of uVIN lesions and symptom improvement, thus warranting further investigation in a larger multicentre study.

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Emotional Resilience and Bariatric Surgical Teams: a Priority in the Pandemic (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Graham, Yitka; Mahawar, Kamal; *Riera, Manel; Islam, Omar; Bhasker, Aparna Ghovil; Wilson, Michael; Tahrani, Abd; Moize, Violeta; Leal, Angela; Hayes, Catherine

Citation:
Obesity surgery; Nov 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
The infection control measures implemented as a result of COVID-19 led to a postponement of bariatric surgical procedures across many countries worldwide. Many bariatric surgical teams were in essence left without a profession, with many redeployed to other areas of clinical care and were not able to provide the levels of patient support given before COVID-19. As the pandemic continues, some restrictions have been lifted, with staff adjusting to new ways of working, incorporating challenging working conditions and dealing with continuing levels of stress. This article explores the concept of emotional labour, defined as ‘inducing or suppressing feelings in order to perform one’s work’, and its application to multidisciplinary teams working within bariatric surgery, to offer insight into the mental health issues that may be affecting healthcare professionals working in this discipline.

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The knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) of mothers of asthmatic children toward asthma in Khartoum asthma clinics (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Noureddin A.A.; Shaaban K.M.; Mohamed S.O.O.; Mahmoud A.A.A.; *Salman M.S.T.; *Abdalla A.A.

Citation:
Scientific reports; Aug 2019; vol. 9 (no. 1); p. 12120

Abstract:
Prevention of asthma attacks is one of the major challenges of public health. Sufficient knowledge and positive attitudes and correct practices are crucial for the prevention of exacerbations. However, there is insufficiency of information in regard to these in Sudan. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and to identify the attitude and practice of mothers of asthmatic children concerning their use of inhalers, compliance to preventers and to measure its effect on the severity of the disease in their children. A sample of 100 consecutive mothers of asthmatic children was enrolled. Any mother with a child diagnosed with bronchial asthma for more than 3 months, and who attended the outpatient clinic of paediatric asthma in Soba or Ahmed Gasim hospitals or the Emergency room of Ahmed Gasim or Ibrahim Malik hospital in the period from 1st to 31st of October 2016 was eligible to be included. Asthma was believed to be infectious by 7% of the respondents. 17% of the mothers thought asthma was preventable by a vaccine. 21% found inhaler use unacceptable. Half of the mothers (50%) did not use the inhaler correctly. Most of the mothers (69%) did not use the inhaler if symptoms were mild and 53% didn’t use preventers. The severity of asthma was found to be significantly associated with the attitude and practice of mothers (P<0.05). In conclusion, sustained efforts are required to increase knowledge about all dimensions of asthma and its management among patients and to disperse myths and misguided judgments regarding the disease and its treatment.

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Nutritional status and predictors of weight loss in patients with systemic sclerosis (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Hvas C.L.; Eriksen M.K.; *Harrison E.; Herrick A.L.; McLaughlin J.T.; Lal S.

Citation:
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN; Volume 40, December 2020, Pages 164-170

Abstract:
Background & aims: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) commonly affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and predisposes to malnutrition. Few studies assessed body composition in outpatients with SSc or used more than one method for comparison over time. The aim of this study was to describe markers of nutrition and body composition in patients with SSc and to identify predictors of unintentional weight loss. Method(s): We consecutively included outpatients with SSc and performed a one-year follow-up. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement was evaluated from clinical investigations. Patients completed questionnaires for organ involvement and functional status. Clinical assessment included body mass index (BMI), the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), inter-incisor distance, anthropometry, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). Result(s): In total, 168 consecutive patients with SSc were included, and 127 (76%) completed one-year follow-up. Thirteen (8%) died before follow-up. Based on MUST scores, 12% of patients were at high and 14% at medium risk of malnutrition. A low BMI was associated with small intestinal involvement (p < 0.0001). Percentage body fat correlated with BMI, both when using four-site anthropometry (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and BIA (r = 0.49, p < 0.01). Nine (7%) patients had >5% unintentional weight loss at follow-up. Independent baseline predictors of unintentional weight loss included upper GI involvement and disease severity estimated by Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index score. Conclusion(s): Nutritional risk and GI involvement are frequent and closely correlated in patients with SSc. BIA and four-site anthropometry are comparable in the clinical assessment of patients with SSc. Unintentional weight loss is discrete and related to disease-specific characteristics.

Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on urgent referrals to secondary care otolaryngology: a prospective case series (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Osborne M.S.; Bentley E.; Farrow A.; Murphy J.; *Chan J.

Citation:
Journal of Laryngology and Otology; 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Objective. As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 changed patient presentation, this study aimed to prospectively identify these changes in a single ENT centre. Design. A seven-week prospective case series was conducted of urgently referred patients from primary care and accident and emergency department. Results. There was a total of 133 referrals. Referral rates fell by 93 per cent over seven weeks, from a mean of 5.4 to 0.4 per day. Reductions were seen in referrals from both primary care (89 per cent) and the accident and emergency department (93 per cent). Presentations of otitis externa and epistaxis fell by 83 per cent, and presentations of glandular fever, tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess fell by 67 per cent. Conclusion. Coronavirus disease 2019 has greatly reduced the number of referrals into secondary care ENT. The cause for this reduction is likely to be due to patients’ increased perceived risk of the virus presence in a medical setting. The impact of this reduction is yet to be ascertained, but will likely result in a substantial increase in emergency pressures once the lockdown is lifted and the general public’s perception of the coronavirus disease 2019 risk reduces.

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Managing hyperlipidaemia in patients with COVID-19 and during its pandemic: An expert panel position statement from HEART UK (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Iqbal Z.; Ho J.H.; France M.; Schofield J.; Nicholson K.; Soran H.; Adam S.; Durrington P.; Syed A.; Neely D.; Rees A.; Payne J.; Khatib R.; Cegla J.; Byrne C.; Qureshi N.; *Capps N.; Ferns G.; Datta D.; Pottle A.; Halcox J.; Krentz A.

Citation:
Atherosclerosis; Nov 2020; vol. 313 ; p. 126-136

Abstract:
The emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and its severity highly variable. The fatality rate is unpredictable but is amplified by several factors including advancing age, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity. A large proportion of patients with these conditions are treated with lipid lowering medication and questions regarding the safety of continuing lipid-lowering medication in patients infected with COVID-19 have arisen. Some have suggested they may exacerbate their condition. It is important to consider known interactions with lipid-lowering agents and with specific therapies for COVID-19. This statement aims to collate current evidence surrounding the safety of lipid-lowering medications in patients who have COVID-19. We offer a consensus view based on current knowledge and we rated the strength and level of evidence for these recommendations. Pubmed, Google scholar and Web of Science were searched extensively for articles using search terms: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coronavirus, Lipids, Statin, Fibrates, Ezetimibe, PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, nicotinic acid, bile acid sequestrants, nutraceuticals, red yeast rice, Omega-3-Fatty acids, Lomitapide, hypercholesterolaemia, dyslipidaemia and Volanesorsen. There is no evidence currently that lipid lowering therapy is unsafe in patients with COVID-19 infection. Lipid-lowering therapy should not be interrupted because of the pandemic or in patients at increased risk of COVID-19 infection. In patients with confirmed COVID-19, care should be taken to avoid drug interactions, between lipid-lowering medications and drugs that may be used to treat COVID-19, especially in patients with abnormalities in liver function tests.

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The reliability, reproducibility and utilization of the radiographic Achilles Tendon Loading Angle in the management of Achilles Tendon rupture (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Carmont M.R.; *Littlehales J.; Brorsson A.; Karlsson J.; Nilsson-Helander K.; Barfod K.W.; Ginder L.

Citation:
Foot and Ankle Surgery; 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Background: During management of Achilles tendon rupture, determination of tendon-end approximation, either clinically or by ultrasound is difficult, following brace application of during loading. The Radiographic Achilles Tendon Loading Angle (RadATLA) is proposed as a method of measuring ankle position whilst loading in a brace during the management of Achilles tendon rupture. This study aims to determine the reliability and reproducibility of the RadATLA. Method(s): A loaded true lateral ankle radiograph including the fifth metatarsal head was taken when wearing a brace at the 6-week time point in 18 patients (19 ankles). following Achilles tendon repair or reconstruction. The RadATLA was compared with the Tibio-talar angle, other radiographic and clinical measures used to quantify foot and ankle position during the first 6 weeks of early rehabilitation in a resting position and during loading. Result(s): The intra-rater reliability of both angles was found to be good (>0.8). The RadATLA was found to have an excellent intra-rater reliability with Intra-class correlation of (ICC) 0.992-0.996 (95%CI 0.889-0.999), standard error of the measurement (SEM) 1.03-3.65 and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) 2.86-10.12. The inter-rater reliability was good with ICC of 0.798-0.969 (95%CI-0.03 to 0.964), SEM 2.9-7.6, and MDC 8.1-20.9. The RadATLA loaded at 6 weeks in all patients was at mean (SD) (range) 41.9 (16.5), (18.5-75.9). There was a significant difference between the patients in the Repair group compared with patients in the Reconstruction group both in RadATLA loaded at 6 weeks: 35.6 (11.2), (18.5-56.5) versus 55.5 (19), (20-75.9), (p = 0.01). The amount loaded in all patients was at mean (SD) (range) 29.2Kg (17.7), (2-56) and the percentage Body Weight was 30.7% (19), (2.1-63.2). There were no differences between the groups neither in amount loaded nor in percentage Body weight (p = 0.614-0.651). Conclusion(s): The RadATLA is a reliable and reproducible angle and can be used to determine the position of the ankle, when loaded in a brace during rehabilitation following Achilles tendon rupture.

Using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire to quantify the health benefits of lymphoedema treatment in patients with head and neck cancer (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Halliday E.; *Ahsan S.F.; Gittins J.

Citation:
Applied Cancer Research; Dec 2020; vol. 40 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Background: Lymphoedema is a common side effect after treatment for head and neck cancer. Our treatment protocol involves staging the degree of lymphoedema and then offering treatment comprising skin care, manual lymphatic drainage, simple lymphatic drainage, compression and elastic therapeutic tape. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory is a validated post-interventional questionnaire applicable to otorhinolaryngology interventions which measures changes in health status. The aim of this study was to quantify the health benefits of lymphoedema treatment using the Glasgow Inventory Benefit questionnaire, in patients with a history of treated head and neck cancer. Method(s): Any patient who had undergone treatment with curative intent of a primary head and neck malignancy who had been referred for lymphoedema treatment within a 6 month period was eligible for inclusion. Patients completed a questionnaire after finishing the course of lymphoedema treatment. Result(s): A total of 15 patients completed the questionnaire. Ten patients (67%) demonstrated some level of improvement in quality of life, while two (13%) reported no benefit and three (20%) reported negative improvements. The average score for the total Glasgow Benefit Inventory scale was + 7.2. The greatest benefit was demonstrated with the physical benefit subscale (+ 13.1). The average general benefit score was + 9.0. Conclusion(s): Lymphoedema treatment involves techniques which can fairly easily be taught to patients to complete at home. In this study, there were mild improvements in patient reported quality of life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory in the majority of patients. Clinical interest has increased in lymphoedema recently, but there is still limited information about the effectiveness of treatments and future research should look to address these issues.

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