Type of publication:
*Nair, S.; Gautier J.
Kidney International Reports; Jul 2019; vol. 4 (no. 7), S350
Introduction: Man-made greenhouse gas emissions have impacted climate changes significantly. This has
adversely affected human health presently and has serious implications for future generations. Healthcare
industry itself contributes towards these carbon footprints. In England, 3.2% of the total CO2 emissions are accounted for by the healthcare industry alone producing 18 million tons CO2eq emissions. National Health Services (NHS) England CO2 emissions exceeds the total emissions from all aircraft departing from Heathrow, the largest European airport. Dialysis patient care accounts for 62.5% of the carbon footprint of a renal service. In UK, the prevalence rate of dialysis patients is 440 patients per million population, that is 25,261 haemodialysis (HD) patients in 2016. 1256 patients received dialysis at home. In-centre HD undertaking dialysis 4 hours 3 times/week, consumes more than 55,000 Litres of water/patient/year and contributes 3,818 kgCO2eq to the carbon footprint. A LDV system may have less emissions compared to traditional machines.
Method(s): This footprint is influenced more by frequency of treatments rather than duration. On average in Europe, patients using NxStage System One (NSO) dialyse 5.7 times for 2.6 hours/week with 24.3 Litres of dialysate/session to deliver a 2.61 stdKt/V. Based on manufacturers data, we calculated fluids volume, weight and energy required with NSO and we compared with requirements to deliver 3 times/week HD or the same clearance with traditional machines (3.5 times/week to deliver a 2.6 stdKt/V in the same patient).
Result(s): Reduced water usage NSO with PureFlow allows to prepare dialysate in-situ. It includes deionization technology and converts 1 Litre source water to 1 Litre of ultrapure dialysate as against traditional osmosis water systems which have a conversion rate of around 50%. Frequent therapy as above utilizes 7377 Litres of source water/year, only 13% of the 56,160 Litres of water used in centre HD and 12% of the 59,717 Litres of water required to deliver the same clearance with a traditional system. Low shipping volume of dialysate concentrates Fluids is the main contributor to shipping volumes in dialysis supplies. PureFlow system allows a minimal shipping volume of 422 Litres of concentrate including buffer per patient-year vs. 702-780 Litres of acid concentrate (dilution 1/43 or 1/35) in conventional HD or 819-910 Liters to deliver the same clearance as with NSO. PureFlow concentrate equals 1.5ton and 0.8m3 per patient-year. Conventional therapy equals 0.9-1.1 ton and 1.4-1.7 m3 (dilution 1/43 or 1/35) of acid concentrate. Delivering the same clearance with a traditional system equals 1.0-1.2 ton and 1.6-2.0 m3. Less energy consumption NSO with PureFlow utilizes 8.2-10.7 kwh to deliver 6 sessions/week. This is 28% less than 29.6-52.9 kwh to deliver 3 sessions/week with a traditional system. If one includes the energy used for water treatment which amounts to 32.5-63.2 kwh/week without heat disinfection, PureFlow usage is less than 20% of this.
Conclusion(s): Despite increased frequency, HHD with LDV is a much greener option for dialysis patients and significantly reduces the carbon footprint. Such systems are the order of the day where one is constantly looking for effective greener options in delivering treatments for our patients.
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