Obstetric and gynaecology trainees’ knowledge of paediatric and adolescent gynaecology services in the UK: A national qualitative thematic analysis (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Ritchie, J K; *Sahu, B; Wood, P L

Citation:
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology; Apr 2019; vol. 235 ; p. 30-35

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The British Society of Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology (BritSPAG) was created in 2000 with specific aims to include raising the profile of paediatric and adolescent gynaecology (PAG) within the United Kingdom (UK). The Society has since developed a set of clinical standards for all acute hospitals providing gynaecological services to enable successful provision of paediatric and adolescent gynaecology care.AIMSTo determine the depth of knowledge that obstetric and gynaecology trainees have with regards to the PAG services provided at their Hospital, reflecting how widely PAG services have had an impact on trainees.METHOD: The national survey was distributed to all deaneries in the UK for circulation to all their trainees via e mail during Nov 2017-March 2018.RESULTS: 28% of the trainees said there was a PAG clinic at their hospital, 46.9% did not have a clinic and 24.7% were unsure. 41.6% of the respondents were aware of BritSPAG, however only 10.4% were aware of the BritSPAG clinical standards for service planning with regards to PAG clinics. Nearly half were aware of the PAG specialist centre for their region but only 6.5% were aware of the BritSPAG UK map of services. A large majority (93.24%) didn’t believe that trainees in O&G received adequate exposure to PAG in their training.CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest and first national survey to seek obstetric and gynaecology trainees’ thoughts on the provision of PAG training in the UK today. Given that only 28% of trainees answering said that they were aware of a PAG clinic at their hospital, this indicates not only that many hospitals did not have a dedicated PAG clinic but more worryingly five of the trainees were not aware of the existence of a confirmed PAG clinic at their hospital, and therefore are potentially losing out on training opportunities. Disappointingly the results of our survey reveal that trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology still have very little experience or exposure to PAG during their training despite there being opportunities to do so.

The knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) of mothers of asthmatic children toward asthma in Khartoum asthma clinics (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Noureddin A.A.; Shaaban K.M.; Mohamed S.O.O.; Mahmoud A.A.A.; *Salman M.S.T.; *Abdalla A.A.

Citation:
Scientific reports; Aug 2019; vol. 9 (no. 1); p. 12120

Abstract:
Prevention of asthma attacks is one of the major challenges of public health. Sufficient knowledge and positive attitudes and correct practices are crucial for the prevention of exacerbations. However, there is insufficiency of information in regard to these in Sudan. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and to identify the attitude and practice of mothers of asthmatic children concerning their use of inhalers, compliance to preventers and to measure its effect on the severity of the disease in their children. A sample of 100 consecutive mothers of asthmatic children was enrolled. Any mother with a child diagnosed with bronchial asthma for more than 3 months, and who attended the outpatient clinic of paediatric asthma in Soba or Ahmed Gasim hospitals or the Emergency room of Ahmed Gasim or Ibrahim Malik hospital in the period from 1st to 31st of October 2016 was eligible to be included. Asthma was believed to be infectious by 7% of the respondents. 17% of the mothers thought asthma was preventable by a vaccine. 21% found inhaler use unacceptable. Half of the mothers (50%) did not use the inhaler correctly. Most of the mothers (69%) did not use the inhaler if symptoms were mild and 53% didn’t use preventers. The severity of asthma was found to be significantly associated with the attitude and practice of mothers (P<0.05). In conclusion, sustained efforts are required to increase knowledge about all dimensions of asthma and its management among patients and to disperse myths and misguided judgments regarding the disease and its treatment.

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Acute appendicitis secondary to endometriosis of the appendix: A case series (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Argyriou O.; Wall M.; Johnson M.; Sutton P.A.; *Tamvakeras P.

Citation:
Colorectal Disease; 2019; vol. 21, S2, p. 36-37

Abstract:
Purpose: To review the clinical presentation, laboratory results, imaging and operative findings of patients subsequently found to have histological evidence of endometriosis of the appendix in a District General Hospital (DGH) between 2016-2018. Method(s): Ten histological reports containing the search term “endometriosis of the appendix” were identified. Four were excluded as planned gynaecological resections for known endometriosis. The case notes, laboratory and imaging reports of six patients were reviewed. Result(s): In three patients, a 72-h or less history of right iliac fossa (RIF) pain was present (24-h or less in two), whereas on two occasions there was a 3-week history of intermittent RIF pain. Three patients reported nausea and vomiting and two were pyrexial. No history of diarrhoea was reported. Inflammatory markers (white cell count-WCC, C-reactive protein-CRP) were raised on three occasions. In five patients, available imaging (CT/USS) was suggestive of an inflammatory process in the right iliac fossa, with principle diagnosis being acute appendicitis, and in one the diagnosis was solely clinical. In all six cases, acute appendicitis was found intraoperatively. The Alvarado score ranged from 4-7. Conclusion(s): Endometriosis of the appendix may present to surgical teams as acute appendicitis. Surgeons should be aware that a longer history of intermittent RIF pain and normal inflammatory markers does not exclude appendicitis secondary to endometriosis. An appendicectomy should be performed, as the aetiology does not appear to otherwise affect the natural history of this condition.

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Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for early rectal cancer-can it be done safely with good outcomes at a in a UK district general hospital (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Vidyasankar V.; *Chakrabarthy A.; *McCloud J.; *Clarke R.

Citation:
Colorectal Disease; Sep 2019; vol. 21, S3, p. 54

Abstract:
Aim: Randomised controlled trials have demonstrated advantages of Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) for early rectal cancer resections. The aim of our study was to assess the safety and outcome of TEMS for early rectal cancer at a U.K district general hospital. Method(s): Between July 2011 to January 2017, 27 patients, 13 men and 14 women, Mean age 77 years, underwent TEMS. Mean lesion diameter was 49 mm. Patient selection was based on multidisciplinary decision. Follow up included colonoscopy, MRI and CT according to standard protocol. Patients were admitted for overnight observation and discharged the following day. Result(s): Mean operative time was 60 minutes. Average hospital stay was 24 hours. One patient (3.7%) had bleeding, three (11%) developed perforation, which were identified and repaired immediately. Two (7.4%) developed pyrexia, One patient (3.7%) developed minor stricture. One (3.7%) developed a recto-vaginal fistula. R0 resection was achieved in 81% and R1 resection was achieved in 19% of cancer cases. One patient (3.7%) developed local recurrence. No mortality. Conclusion(s): Our study demonstrates that TEMS for early rectal cancer can be safely performed in selected patients at a district general hospital, with outcomes comparable with international data.

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Childbirth-related pelvic floor trauma in women at-risk: A survey of the current obstetric management of short stature primigravid women (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Rachaneni S.; Freeman R.

Citation:
International Urogynecology Journal; September 2019; vol. 30 (no. 1 Supplement)

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the antenatal and intrapartum management of short statured primigravid women in relation to the awareness of the increased risk of long-term pelvic floor morbidity from childbirth, by Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the UK. Method(s):We carried out a questionnaire survey with 15 questions about the antenatal and intrapartum management of short statured primigravid women with a clinically large fetus, their timing and mode of delivery and discussion with the women about their risk of long-term pelvic floor morbidity following spontaneous and instrumental vaginal deliveries, their choice of instruments and episiotomy. Result(s): The survey was completed by 424 Members and Fellows of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (UK). We created a scenario of a short stature primigravid woman who presented with a clinically large baby around 38 weeks gestation. Sixty five percent of the responders stated that they would scan for estimated fetal weight, 48% would offer induction of labo-r at 40 weeks gestation and 13% would offer an elective caesarean section at 39-40 weeks. Only 59% of the responders said that would discuss the risks of obstructed labo-r, shoulder dystocia, instrumental delivery and Obstetric anal sphincter injury. Seventy percent of the responders said they would not discuss the long term risks of urinary, fecal incontinence and prolapse during antenatal or intrapartum management. For intrapartum management with failure to progress in the second stage of labo-r, 69% would attempt a rotational instrumental delivery, and only 5% would offer an emergency caesarean section. Manual rotation followed by ‘straight’ forceps application (59%) was the most frequent rotational delivery offered followed by Ventouse (40%) and Keillands forceps rotation. Thirty four percent stated that do not routinely perform an episiotomy in this scenario. The choice of instrument was not based on the long-term risk of pelvic floor dysfunction in 73% of the responses. Conclusion(s): The survey reveals a poor level of counselling of primigravid women of short stature who are known to be at higher risk of long-term pelvic floor trauma and consequent incontinence and prolapse.

Role of flavonoids in the management of acutely symptomatic haemorrhoids: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Rehman S.; Miles W.; Sains P.; Sajid M.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2019; vol. 106, S5, p. 110

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this article is to assess the role of role of flavonoids in the management of acutely
symptomatic haemorrhoids.
Method(s): The data retrieved from the published randomized, controlled trials (RCT) regarding the role of flavonoids in the management of acutely symptomatic haemorrhoids was analysed using the principles of metaanalysis. The summated outcome of dichotomous variables was expressed in odds ratio (OR).
Result(s): Ten RCTs on 1478 patients comparing the surgical outcomes in patients having clinically and endoscopically diagnosed acute symptomatic haemorrhoids after using flavonoids versus placebo preparation were analysed. In the random effects model analysis using the statistical software Review Manager 5.3, the symptomatic relief (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.16, 1.3928; z = 1.36; P = 0.18), satisfaction on pain relief (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.08, 1.07; z = 1.86; P = 0.06), recurrence (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.14, 1.63; z = 1.17; P = 0.24) and complications rate (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.49, 3.54; z = 0.54; P = 0.59) were statistically similar in both groups. However, symptomatic haemorrhoidal bleeding control rate was higher in flavonoids group (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.84; z = 2.33; P = 0.02).
Conclusion(s): Use of flavonoids to treat symptomatic acute haemorrhoids failed to demonstrate better effectiveness over traditional placebo remedies except better bleeding control.

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Is it Necessary to do Colonoscopy after Appendicectomy in Patients Over the Age of 50 Years? (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Chakrabarty A.; *Vardhrajan V.; *Cheetham M

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2019; vol. 106 S5; p. 70

Abstract:
Aim: In the United Kingdom 1 in 13 people are affected by appendicitis. The commonest age group is between
10 to 20 years. Appendicitis is relatively uncommon in adults over 50 years. There is a belief that appendicitis
may be precipitated or mimicked by colorectal cancer and hence some surgeons recommend that patients over the age of 50 should undergo a post-operative colonoscopy.
Method(s): We identified patients over the age of 50 years who had appendicectomies in our hospital between
2013 and 2017 usingHES data. Detailed data was collected for all the patients from radiology and endoscopy
data bases. We calculated the cost of post-operative colonoscopy to the health system using PBR tariff.
Result(s): 396 patients aged over 50 underwent emergency appendicectomy during the study period. Of these
284 (72%) had had pre-operative C T scans. 88 (22%) out of the 396 patients underwent a colonoscopy within 3 months of their appendicectomy. Of these 88 patients, 62 had pre-operative CT scans. No cancers were found on post-operative colonoscopy. The cost of performing post-operative colonoscopy in this cohort was 35, 464.
Conclusion(s): In an era of liberal preoperative CT scanning for patients over 50 with right iliac fossa pain, it is
not necessary to perform a colonoscopy after appendicectomy. We recommend that for patients who have a
preoperative CT scan, a post-operative colonoscopy is only needed if there are specific imaging abnormalities.

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Better safe than total; experience of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in a specialist Upper GI and Bariatric surgery unit and literature review (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Rehman S.; *Abayomi S.; *Jahangir B.; *Maciejewski M.; *Qassem M. ; *Kirby G.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2019; vol. 106, S5; p. 117

Abstract:
Aims: NICE/AUGIS guidelines suggest performing cholecystectomies while ‘hot’ (within a week). There is a
significant risk of biliary injury and/or open procedure in severely inflamed gallbladders and subtotal
cholecystectomies have been suggested to prevent these. The objective of this article is to present short and
medium term outcomes of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) in a specialist upper GI and bariatric
unit.
Method(s): This study included all consecutive patients who underwent LSC between August 2014 and August
2018. Clinical notes were retrospectively analysed. Assessed parameters included demographics, urgency of
operation, method of stump closure, length of inpatient stay, biliary injury, post-op incidence of intervention or
re-operation and post-op complications.
Result(s): 20 patients underwent LSC comprising around 0.7% of all the gallbladder operations performed in
our unit during this period. Median age was 67.1 years. 15 (75%) of these operations were carried out as
elective. Stump was closed by absorbable sutures in 18 (90%) of these patients while endoloop was used in one. Median length of stay was 6.2 days. None of the patients had biliary injury on later follow up and 7 (35%)
patients required ERCP. Post-op complications included chronic abdominal pain, wound infection and bile leak
in 2 (10%), 1 (5%) and 1 (5%) patient respectively.
Conclusion(s): Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy proved to have an acceptable profile of safety and
outcomes in our unit and data is comparable with already published literature. Increased incidence of LSC in
elective patients may highlight the significance of establishing a hot gallbladder service.

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Haemorrhoidal artery ligation and/or suture mucopexy for haemorrhoidal disease with or without the use of Doppler ultrasonography: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Rehman S.; Miles W.; Sains P.; Sajid M.; Baig M.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2019; vol. 106, S5; p. 27-28

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this article is to compare the surgical outcomes following haemorrhoidal artery ligation
and/or suture mucopexy for haemorrhoidal disease with or without the use of Doppler ultrasonography.
Method(s): The data retrieved from the published randomized, controlled trials (RCT) comparing the surgical
outcomes following haemorrhoidal artery ligation and/or suture mucopexy for haemorrhoidal disease with or
without the use of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) was analysed using the principles of meta-analysis. The
summated outcome of dichotomous variables was expressed in risk ratio (RR) and continuous data was
presented in standardised mean difference (SMD).
Result(s): Four RCTs on 270 patients comparing the surgical outcomes following haemorrhoidal artery ligation
and/or suture mucopexy for haemorrhoidal disease with or without the use of Doppler ultrasonography were
analysed using the statistical software Review Manager 5.3. In the random effects model analysis no-DUS
group had shorter procedure time (SMD, 3.69; 95% CI, 2.73, 4.64; z = 7.56; P = 0.00001), better symptomatic
relief rate (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07, 3.56; z = 2.19; P = 0.03) and lower risk of short or long term haemorrhoidal
bleed (RR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.25, 4.11; z = 2.70; P = 0.0007). The recurrence rate (RR, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.66, 5.30; z =
1.18; P = 0.24), post-operative pain score and complication rate were similar in both groups.
Conclusion(s): The use of DUS in haemorrhoidal artery ligation and/or suture mucopexy for haemorrhoidal
disease is not mandatory and better clinical outcomes may be achieved without its use.

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Duplication of the Gallbladder and its Surgical Challenges (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Tamvakeras P.; *Riera M.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2019; vol. 106, S6; p. 28

Abstract:
Aims: Duplication of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly. However, awareness of this anatomical variation is crucial when treating gallstone disease. We present the case of a patient with two gallbladders, incidentally found during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We review the literature and discuss the associated surgical challenges.
Methods: Case presentation and literature review of the classification, clinical presentation, radiological diagnosis and management of gallbladder duplication.
Results: A 37 year old healthy man presented with a two year history of post prandial right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Routine blood investigations were normal and ultrasonography (US) demonstrated gallstones with normal biliary ducts. During laparoscopy he was found to have gallbladder duplication with a Y-shaped type cystic duct, this consisted of two ducts joining together to form a main cystic duct which drained into an otherwise normal common bile duct. No cholangiogram was performed. After meticulous dissection and demonstration of the anatomy, the cholecystectomy was performed. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged the next day. Histology showed gallstones and chronic inflammation in both
gallbladders.
Conclusions: A duplicate gallbladder is a rare congenital variation. Preoperative diagnosis can be challenging. Understanding its classification based on the relational anatomy to the biliary tree is essential to avoid biliary injuries. Imaging modalities such as US and computed tomography (CT) may not be sensitive enough. MRCP may demonstrate the biliary tree more clearly. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely performed, in the presence of symptomatic gallstone disease.

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