High-fidelity simulation on shoulder dystocia management in Greek Midwives: the SAFE study (2022)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Papoutsis D.; Klazoglou P.; Valasoulis G.

Citation:
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Conference: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists World Congress, RCOG 2022. London United Kingdom. 129(Supplement 1) (pp 128), 2022. Date of Publication: June 2022.

Abstract:
Objective: The SAFE study is funded from the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation and its primary objective is to explore and quantify how the knowledge and skills on shoulder dystocia management of Greek Midwives may improve following high-fidelity simulation. Design(s): A high-fidelity simulator that consisted of a pelvic model and a computerised neonatal mannequin with a built in force-monitoring system was utilised for the purposes of shoulder dystocia management in a one-day workshop. Registered midwives were invited to participate in groups of five in a 90-min training session during the workshop. Method(s): The training session consisted of a 30-minute initial assessment, a 30-minute theoretical and hands-on training from the instructor, and a 30-minute final assessment of participants. The outcomes measured involved the performance of maneuvers, the force applied on the neonatal head, the level of communication skills and self-reported confidence. These outcomes were recorded at the start and end of the training session. The checklist of performance involved 20 items in accordance with the RCOG guideline on shoulder dystocia. The force applied on the neonatal head was recorded with the force-monitoring system of the simulator. The communication skills and the self reported confidence of participants were measured on a numerical scale. The pre-and after-training scores of all four outcomes were compared and statistical analysis was applied. Result(s): There were n = 6 one-day workshops with 81 midwives participating in total (October-November 2021). Their mean age was 30.6 +/- 11.1 years old (median:25 years). Prior to training, only 6/81 (7.4%) managed to successfully deliver the impacted shoulder (defined as successful delivery of the posterior arm), with this increasing to 77/81 (95%) after training. The force applied to the neonatal head was similar pre-and after-training (pre:102.20 +/- 38.1 Newtons vs after: 102.13 +/- 27.7 Newtons), with a convergence of the outliers to the mean value. Performance scores (scale:0- 20) improved significantly almost three-fold (pre:5.75 +/- 3.8 vs after:15.63 +/- 2.5), and the self-reported confidence of participants (scale:0-10) increased almost two-fold (pre:3.2 +/- 1.9 vs after: 7.8 +/- 1.4). The communication skills of the participants (scale:0-5) also improved (pre: 2.90 +/- 1.1 vs after: 4.78 +/- 0.5). Those with the most improvement in their confidence were the participants with less clinical experience (r = ?0.329, p = 0.03). Conclusion(s): High-fidelity simulation on the management of shoulder dystocia at childbirth, even after a single training session, can significantly improve the performance score of maneuvers, the levels of confidence and the communication skills of Midwives.

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Factors affecting womens' sexual function during the first-year after childbirth in Greece (2022)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Haritopoulou E.; Papatheodorou D.; Nitsa E.; Antonakou A.; *Papoutsis D.

Citation:BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Conference: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists World Congress, RCOG 2022. London United Kingdom. 129(Supplement 1) (pp 204), 2022. Date of Publication: June 2022.

Abstract:Objective: Sexual dysfunction after childbirth has been related to the number of vaginal births, the mode of delivery, and to the severity of perineal trauma. The present cross-sectional study was designed to identify the factors that affect the quality of sexual function during the first year after delivery in Greek women. <Design(s): We constructed an 81-item questionnaire that was posted online via the social media for the time period of February-April 2021. Women residing in Greece who had delivered more than 4 weeks ago but not more than 12 months ago were considered eligible for the study. Method(s): Data that was collected included patients' demographics, and data regarding their labour and childbirth. Information on their sexual life before, during and after pregnancy was also collected and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to quantify the sexual function of women during the 4 weeks prior to answering the questionnaire (score range:0-36, with a score of 26 or less indicating sexual dysfunction). After data collection was completed statistical analysis was applied. Result(s): In total there were 441 women responding to the questionnaire with a mean age of 32.5+/-4.4 years old. Approximately half of women delivered 6 months ago and 55.2% were first time mothers. The caesarean section rate in the total sample was 47.9%, and only 34.2% had a spontaneous onset vaginal birth. At childbirth, more than 85% of women sustained perineal trauma, of which 39.3% had an episiotomy. During pregnancy 76% of women had sexual intercourse with their partners, with half of them having a frequency of 2-3 times a month. The mean score of the FSFI index in the total sample was 21.8 +/- 10.7. There was a significant correlation of sexual dysfunction postpartum with exclusive breastfeeding, with increasing maternal age, with reduced number of sleeping hours, with the limited support from their family environment, and with the presence of incontinence. Conversely, the increased frequency of sexual intercourse before and during pregnancy was correlated with a higher score of sexual function postpartum. Perineal trauma, a high body mass index, smoking, and the mode of delivery did not seem to affect the sexual function after delivery. Conclusion(s): We have identified factors that seem to modify the sexual function of Greek women postpartum. These factors should be taken in consideration when providing midwifery care to women after birth.

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Exploring pregnant women's experiences of stopping smoking with an incentive scheme with 'enhanced' support: a qualitative study (2022)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):McCormack F.C.; Hopley R.C.; Boath E.H.; Parry S.L.; Roscoe S.M.; Stewart A.; *Birch V.A.

Citation:Perspectives in Public Health. 2022. [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:Aim: This study aims to understand pregnant women's experiences of smoking cessation with an incentive scheme in a deprived UK city. This is important because smoking cessation with pregnant women is one of the most crucial public health initiatives to promote, and is particularly challenging in deprived areas. While financial incentive schemes are controversial, there is a need to better understand pregnant women's experiences. The scheme combined quasi-financial incentives (shopping vouchers) for validated quits (carbon monoxide (CO) validated at < 10 ppm), enhanced support from smoking cessation advisors, the opportunity to identify a 'Significant Other Supporter' and nicotine replacement therapy. Method(s): With the focus on understanding pregnant women's experiences, a qualitative design was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 pregnant women from the scheme, and the three advisors. All interviews were transcribed, and thematic analysis conducted. Result(s): Pregnant women reported various challenges to quitting, including long-established routines, and stress. Participants were aware of stigma around incentives but were all very positive about the scheme. The relationship with advisors was described as fundamental. The women valued their advice and support, while uptake of the 'Significant Other Supporter' appeared low. Participants viewed the CO monitoring as 'an incentive', while the vouchers were framed as a 'bonus'. Advisors perceived the vouchers as helping engage pregnant women and maintain quit status, and women appreciated the vouchers both as financial assistance and recognition of their accomplishments. Conclusion(s): This study highlights the great value women placed on the support, advice and monitoring from specialist advisors. The distinction between vouchers as a welcomed bonus, rather than 'the incentive' to engage, is important. How smoking cessation and schemes to promote this are communicated to pregnant women and health professionals is important, particularly given the stigma and controversy involved.

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Worth the paper it's written on? A cross-sectional study of Medical Certificate of Stillbirth accuracy in the UK (2022)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Rimmer MP; Henderson I; *Parry-Smith W; Raglan O; Tamblyn J; Heazell AEP; Higgins LE; UKARCOG NESTT working group authors

Citation:International Journal of Epidemiology, June 2022 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:Background: The Medical Certificate of Stillbirth (MCS) records data about a baby's death after 24 weeks of gestation but before birth. Major errors that could alter interpretation of the MCS were widespread in two UK-based regional studies. Methods: A multicentre evaluation was conducted, examining MCS issued 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018 in 76 UK obstetric units. A systematic case-note review of stillbirths was conducted by Obstetric and Gynaecology trainees, generating individual 'ideal MCSs' and comparing these to the actual MCS issued. Anonymized central data analysis described rates and types of error, agreement and factors associated with major errors. Results: There were 1120 MCSs suitable for assessment, with 126 additional submitted data sets unsuitable for accuracy analysis (total 1246 cases). Gestational age demonstrated 'substantial' agreement [K = 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.76)]. Primary cause of death (COD) showed 'fair' agreement [K = 0.26 (95% CI 0.24-0.29)]. Major errors [696/1120; 62.1% (95% CI 59.3-64.9%)] included certificates issued for fetal demise at <24 weeks' gestation [23/696; 3.3% (95% CI 2.2-4.9%)] or neonatal death [2/696; 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-1.1%)] or incorrect primary COD [667/696; 95.8% (95% CI 94.1-97.1%)]. Of 540/1246 [43.3% (95% CI 40.6-46.1%)] 'unexplained' stillbirths, only 119/540 [22.0% (95% CI 18.8-25.7%)] remained unexplained; the majority were redesignated as either fetal growth restriction [FGR: 195/540; 36.1% (95% CI 32.2-40.3%)] or placental insufficiency [184/540; 34.1% (95% CI 30.2-38.2)]. Overall, FGR [306/1246; 24.6% (95% CI 22.3-27.0%)] was the leading primary COD after review, yet only 53/306 [17.3% (95% CI 13.5-22.1%)] FGR cases were originally attributed correctly. Conclusion: This study demonstrates widespread major errors in MCS completion across the UK. MCS should only be completed following structured case-note review, with particular attention on the fetal growth trajectory.

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Mifepristone and misoprostol versus placebo and misoprostol for resolution of miscarriage in women diagnosed with missed miscarriage: The MifeMiso RCT (2021)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Devall A.; Chu J.; Gallos I.; Coomarasamy A.; Beeson L.; Cheed V.; Sun Y.; Roberts T.; Ogwulu C.O.; Williams E.; Jones L.; La Fontaine Papadopoulos J.; Hardy P.; Bender-Atik R.; Brewin J.; Hinshaw K.; Ahmed A.; Choudhary M.; Naftalin J.; Nunes N.; Oliver A.; Izzat F.; Bhatia K.; Hassan I.; Jeve Y.; Hamilton J.; Deb S.; Bottomley C.; Ross J.; Watkins L.; *Underwood M.; Cheong Y.; Kumar C.; Gupta P.; Small R.; Pringle S.; Hodge F.; Shahid A.; Horne A.; Quenby S.

Citation:Health Technology Assessment; 2021; vol. 25 (no. 68), p. 1-114

Abstract:Background Miscarriage is the most common complication of pregnancy. As many as 15-25% of pregnancies end in a miscarriage, and the number of miscarriages in England is estimated to be approximately 125,000 per year. Management of miscarriage can be expectant (i.e. waiting for natural miscarriage), medical (i.e. with drugs) or surgical. About 25% of women opt for medical management; however, there is uncertainty about the optimal drug regimens for medical management. Before National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline CG154 was published in 2012, it was common practice to use a combination of mifepristone (Mifegyne, Exelgyn, Paris, France) and misoprostol. The 2012 guideline, however, recommended that misoprostol alone should be given to women having medical management. This recommendation was based on very limited evidence, from one study of 115 women, which found no difference between a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol and misoprostol alone. Recognising the limited available evidence, NICE and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) called for a trial. Objectives The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment with mifepristone plus misoprostol is superior to treatment with misoprostol alone for the resolution of miscarriage within 7 days in women diagnosed by pelvic ultrasound scan with a missed miscarriage in the first 14 weeks of pregnancy. The key secondary objective aimed to test the hypothesis that the addition of mifepristone reduces the need for surgical intervention to resolve the miscarriage. Other secondary objectives aimed to evaluate if the addition of mifepristone reduces the need for further doses of misoprostol, to evaluate if the addition of mifepristone improves other clinical outcomes [including surgical intervention up to and including 7 days post randomisation and after 7 days post randomisation, duration of bleeding, infection, negative pregnancy test at 21 days post randomisation, time from randomisation to discharge from early pregnancy unit (EPU) care, side effects and complications], to evaluate if the addition of mifepristone improves patient satisfaction and acceptability of management and to assess the cost-effectiveness of the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol in the medical management of missed miscarriage. Methods Participants were randomised online in a 1: 1 ratio via a secure internet facility through an Integrated Trial Management System. Minimisation was implemented for maternal age (< 30 or >= 30 years), body mass index (< 35 or >= 35 kg/m2), previous parity (nulliparous or parous women), gestational age (< 70 or >= 70 days), amount of bleeding (Pictorial Blood loss Assessment Chart score; <= 2 or >= 3) and randomising centre. Clinical data were collected up to discharge from EPU care. Participants who agreed to participate in the qualitative study were interviewed by telephone or videoconference or face to face within approximately 6 weeks of their discharge date. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. A withintrial cost-effectiveness study and a nested qualitative study were also conducted as part of the trial. Results A total of 711 women, from 28 hospitals in the UK, received either mifepristone plus misoprostol (357 women) or placebo plus misoprostol (354 women). The follow-up rate for the primary outcome was 98% (696 of 711 women). The risk of failure to pass the gestational sac within 7 days was 17% (59 of 348 women) in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, compared with 24% (82 out of 348 women) in the placebo plus misoprostol group [risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.98; p = 0.04]. Surgical intervention to resolve the miscarriage was needed in 17% (62 out of 355 women) in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, compared with 25% (87 out of 353 women) in the placebo plus misoprostol group (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.94; p = 0.02). There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. A total of 42 women, 19 in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group and 23 in the placebo plus misoprostol group, took part in an interview.Women appeared to have a preference for active management of their miscarriage, to help bring a timely resolution to the physical process. Overall, when women experienced care that supported their psychological well-being throughout the care pathway, and information was delivered in a skilled and sensitive manner such that women felt informed and in control, they were more likely to express satisfaction with medical management. The within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis found that the use of mifepristone and misoprostol resulted in an absolute effect difference of 6.6% (95% CI 0.7% to 12.5%). The average cost per woman was lower in the mifepristone and misoprostol (MifeMiso) group than in the placebo and misoprostol group, with a cost saving of 182 (95% CI 26 to 338). Hence the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for the medical management of a missed miscarriage dominated the use of misoprostol alone. The modelbased analysis, that compared the trial intervention with other existing possible interventions for the management of miscarriage not analysed in the trial, showed that the MifeMiso intervention is dominant when compared with expectant management and the current medical management strategy. However, the intervention is a less effective, although less costly, strategy than surgical management. Conclusions Our trial showed that pre-treatment with mifepristone followed by misoprostol resulted in a higher rate of resolution of missed miscarriage than misoprostol treatment alone. Women were largely satisfied with medical management of missed miscarriage and would choose it again.

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Healing pattern of the cervical stroma following cold coagulation treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: A case report (2022)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Papoutsis D; *Williams J; *Underwood M; *Parry-Smith W

Citation:
Oncology letters; 2022 Mar; Vol. 23 (3), pp. 81

Abstract:
Cold coagulation of the cervix for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), when compared with cervical excision, has previously demonstrated comparable cure rates and a reduction in the rate of spontaneous preterm birth. In the present report the healing pattern in the cervices of two women after cold coagulation is described. Both women underwent cold coagulation due to CIN3, which was found on pre-treatment cervical punch biopsies. They were followed up after cold coagulation and at 7 and 18 months, respectively, they underwent cervical excision. The histopathological slides from the excised specimen were reviewed, which represents the healed cervix after cold coagulation. A clear boundary of collagenisation was noted in the superficial stroma, which appeared to stop at the junction with the healthy muscular stroma. The collagenised superficial stroma depth, which represents the area that was thermally ablated and has now healed, measured 1.6 and 1.5 mm for the two women, respectively, which is less compared with that typically removed by cervical excision. Observations from these two cases indicate that cold coagulation does not appear to disrupt the deep tissue architecture of the cervix and could therefore explain the reduced levels of adverse obstetric morbidity in patients who underwent cold coagulation ablative treatment of the cervix, which has been previously reported.

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Mifepristone and misoprostol versus misoprostol alone for the management of missed miscarriage (MifeMiso): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (2021)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Devall A.; Chu J.; Beeson L.; Hardy P.; Cheed V.; Sun Y.; Roberts T.; Ogwulu C.O.; Williams E.; Jones L.; Papadopoulos J.F.; Bender-Atik R.; Brewin J.; Hinshaw K.; Choudhary M.; Ahmed A.; Naftalin J.; Nunes N.; Oliver A.; Izzat F.; Bhatia K.; Hassan I.; Jeve Y.; Hamilton J.; Deb S.; Bottomley C.; Ross J.; Watkins L.; *Underwood M.; Cheong Y.; Kumar C.; Gupta P.; Small R.; Pringle S.; Hodge F.; Shahid A.; Gallos I.; Horne A.; Quenby S.; Coomarasamy A.

Citation:

Health Technology Assessment, November 2021, 25(68) (pp 1-114)

Abstract:
TRIAL DESIGN: A randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study with health economic and nested qualitative studies to determine if mifepristone (Mifegyne, Exelgyn, Paris, France) plus misoprostol is superior to misoprostol alone for the resolution of missed miscarriage. METHOD(S): Women diagnosed with missed miscarriage in the first 14 weeks of pregnancy were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive 200mg of oral mifepristone or matched placebo, followed by 800mug of misoprostol 2 days later. A web-based randomisation system allocated the women to the two groups, with minimisation for age, body mass index, parity, gestational age, amount of bleeding and randomising centre. The primary outcome was failure to pass the gestational sac within 7 days after randomisation. The prespecified key secondary outcome was requirement for surgery to resolve the miscarriage. A within-trial cost-effectiveness study and a nested qualitative study were also conducted. Women who completed the trial protocol were purposively approached to take part in an interview to explore their satisfaction with and the acceptability of medical management of missed miscarriage. RESULT(S): A total of 711 women, from 28 hospitals in the UK, were randomised to receive either mifepristone plus misoprostol (357 women) or placebo plus misoprostol (354 women). The follow-up rate for the primary outcome was 98% (696 out of 711 women). The risk of failure to pass the gestational sac within 7 days was 17% (59 out of 348 women) in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, compared with 24% (82 out of 348 women) in the placebo plus misoprostol group (risk ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.98; p=0.04). Surgical intervention to resolve the miscarriage was needed in 17% (62 out of 355 women) in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, compared with 25% (87 out of 353 women) in the placebo plus misoprostol group (risk ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.94; p=0.02). There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. A total of 42 women, 19 in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group and 23 in the placebo plus misoprostol group, took part in an interview. Women appeared to have a preference for active management of their miscarriage. Overall, when women experienced care that supported their psychological well-being throughout the care pathway, and information was delivered in a skilled and sensitive manner such that women felt informed and in control, they were more likely to express satisfaction with medical management. The use of mifepristone and misoprostol showed an absolute effect difference of 6.6% (95% confidence interval 0.7% to 12.5%). The average cost per woman was lower in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, with a cost saving of 182 (95% confidence interval 26 to 338). Therefore, the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for the medical management of a missed miscarriage dominated the use of misoprostol alone. LIMITATIONS: The results from this trial are not generalisable to women diagnosed with incomplete miscarriage and the study does not allow for a comparison with expectant or surgical management of miscarriage. FUTURE WORK: Future work should use existing data to assess and rank the relative clinical effectiveness and safety profiles for all methods of management of miscarriage. CONCLUSION(S): Our trial showed that pre-treatment with mifepristone followed by misoprostol resulted in a higher rate of resolution of missed miscarriage than misoprostol treatment alone. Women were largely satisfied with medical management of missed miscarriage and would choose it again. The mifepristone and misoprostol intervention was shown to be cost-effective in comparison to misoprostol alone.

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Myomectomy during cesarean section or non-caesarean myomectomy in reproductive surgery: This is the dilemma. (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Tinelli A.; Nezhat C.H.; Likic-Ladjevic I.; Andjic M.; Tomasevic D.; *Papoutsis D.; Stefanovic R.; Sparic R.

Citation:
Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology. December 2021, 48(6) (pp 1250-1258)

Abstract:
Nowadays it is quite common to encounter pregnants over 35 years with uterine fibroids (UFs), requiring cesarean section (CS). Large UFs may cause severe complications during delivery, as bleeding and hemorrhage, during vaginal or cesarean delivery. Frequently, the caesarean myomectomy (CM) is recommended, but generally obstetricians are reluctant to perform CM, since literature data do not agree on its surgical recommendation. CM is jet particularly controversial, due to increased risk of perioperative hemorrhage and cesarean hysterectomy, and UFs are often left in situ during cesarean section (CS). CM investigations are generally directed to myomectomy associated issues, whereas CS complications without CM are largely underreported. The risks of leaving UF for an interval myomectomy is underestimated and large UFs, left in uterus during CS, might cause significant early and late postoperative complications, even necessitating a relaparotomy and/or a subsequent hysterectomy. CM would be mandatory in some instances, whatever the UF diameter, to avoid further damage or complications. UFs management prior to CS should include a full counselling on pro and cons on the possible consequences of surgical decisioning. To illustrate what was discussed above, authors performed a narrative review with an expert opinion, reporting a case of a 31-year-old woman with a large UF who underwent a CS without myomectomy. Nine hours after CS, puerpera was submitted, for a massive postoperative hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock, to an emergency relaparotomy with total hysterectomy without salpingo-oophorectomy

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The effect of the measures taken during the coronavirus pandemic on specialty trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology in the United Kingdom: an online questionnaire survey in one region (2022)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Elghobashy M; Stout A; Hatti A; *Smotra G; El-Ghobashy A

Citation:
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2022 Jan 12, pp. 1-6 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has had unprecedented effects on healthcare delivery. A 34-question online survey was sent to obstetrics and gynaecology trainees within the West Midlands to assess the impact of the pandemic on training, working practices and well-being. 101 responses were received from obstetrics and gynaecology trainees. Trainees reported a significant reduction in both elective and emergency surgeries as well as outpatient clinics. Over one third of respondents felt additional training time may be required following reduction of clinical opportunities. 44% of trainees felt their workload increased significantly. 55% of trainees felt the pandemic had a significant negative impact on their physical and mental well-being. Obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in the West Midlands have adapted to the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic despite significant impact on their training, working practices and wellbeing. It is important to tailor training to improve trainees' education and combat lost training time during the pandemic. This should be considered for long-term shaping of the obstetrics and gynaecology training pathway.IMPACT STATEMENT What is already known on this subject? Little research is available about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on obstetrics and gynaecology trainees. This is the first study of its kind to assess the effect of the pandemic on obstetrics ang gynaecology trainees in the United Kingdom. What do the results of this study add? The results of this study have shown that obstetrics and gynaecology training has been heavily affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. There have been significant impacts on their training, working patterns and physical and mental wellbeing. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? These findings can be used to mould the obstetrics and gynaecology training pathway based on the feedback given by the trainees during the pandemic. The survey questions can also be utilised as a framework for similar research projects across the United Kingdom Deaneries, among other specialties and around the world.

Intrauterine contraception (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Ritchie J.; Phelan N.; Briggs P.

Citation:
Obstetrician and Gynaecologist; Jul 2021; vol. 23 (no. 3); p. 187-195

Abstract:
Key content: An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) or intrauterine contraception (IUC) offers reliable long-acting reversible contraception; however, some patients can be hesitant to choose this option because of misconceptions about side effects and perceived complications. A comprehensive knowledge of IUC is required to allow adequate counselling and to dispel myths. There are many different methods of IUC, including four different levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) and multiple different copper intrauterine devices, with different insertion techniques. Considering contraception is important at several life stages, including post-delivery, post-termination of pregnancy and around the menopause; these will require different counselling. The use of IUC can have noncontraceptive benefits, including relief of heavy menstrual bleeding, management of menopause and premenstrual syndrome and reducing gynaecological cancer risk. Learning objectives: To learn the different types of IUC, including the different indications and possible complications. To understand the noncontraceptive benefits of IUC. To understand the challenges faced when a patient is hesitant to consider IUC

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