Cauda equina compression in metastatic prostate cancer (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Siddiqui R.S.; *Cheruvu M.S.; *Ansari H.; *Van Liefland M.

Citation:
BMJ Case Reports; Dec 2020; vol. 13 (no. 12)

Abstract:
A 67-year-old man presented to his general practitioner with intermittent episodes of unilateral sciatica over a 2-month period for which he was referred for an outpatient MRI of his spine. This evidenced a significant lumbar vertebral mass that showed tight canal stenosis and compression of the cauda equina. The patient was sent to the emergency department for management by orthopaedic surgeons. He was mobilising independently, pain free on arrival and without neurological deficit on assessment. Clinically, this patient presented with no red flag symptoms of cauda equina syndrome or reason to suspect malignancy. In these circumstances, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines do not support radiological investigation of the spine outside of specialist services. However, in this case, investigation helped deliver urgent care for cancer that otherwise may have been delayed. This leads to the question, do the current guidelines meet clinical requirements?

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Using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire to quantify the health benefits of lymphoedema treatment in patients with head and neck cancer (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Halliday E.; *Ahsan S.F.; Gittins J.

Citation:
Applied Cancer Research; Dec 2020; vol. 40 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Background: Lymphoedema is a common side effect after treatment for head and neck cancer. Our treatment protocol involves staging the degree of lymphoedema and then offering treatment comprising skin care, manual lymphatic drainage, simple lymphatic drainage, compression and elastic therapeutic tape. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory is a validated post-interventional questionnaire applicable to otorhinolaryngology interventions which measures changes in health status. The aim of this study was to quantify the health benefits of lymphoedema treatment using the Glasgow Inventory Benefit questionnaire, in patients with a history of treated head and neck cancer. Method(s): Any patient who had undergone treatment with curative intent of a primary head and neck malignancy who had been referred for lymphoedema treatment within a 6 month period was eligible for inclusion. Patients completed a questionnaire after finishing the course of lymphoedema treatment. Result(s): A total of 15 patients completed the questionnaire. Ten patients (67%) demonstrated some level of improvement in quality of life, while two (13%) reported no benefit and three (20%) reported negative improvements. The average score for the total Glasgow Benefit Inventory scale was + 7.2. The greatest benefit was demonstrated with the physical benefit subscale (+ 13.1). The average general benefit score was + 9.0. Conclusion(s): Lymphoedema treatment involves techniques which can fairly easily be taught to patients to complete at home. In this study, there were mild improvements in patient reported quality of life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory in the majority of patients. Clinical interest has increased in lymphoedema recently, but there is still limited information about the effectiveness of treatments and future research should look to address these issues.

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Selection of endogenous control genes for normalising gene expression data derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Smith T.A.D.; AbdelKarem O.A.; Irlam-Jones J.J.; Lane B.; Valentine H.; Bibby B.A.S.; Choudhury A.; West C.M.L.; *Denley H.

Citation:
Scientific reports; Oct 2020; vol. 10 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data are normalised using endogenous control genes. We aimed to: (1) demonstrate a pathway to identify endogenous control genes for qPCR analysis of formalinfixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue using bladder cancer as an exemplar; and (2) examine the influence of probe length and sample age on PCR amplification and co-expression of candidate genes on apparent expression stability. RNA was extracted from prospective and retrospective samples and subject to qPCR using TaqMan human endogenous control arrays or single tube assays. Gene stability ranking was assessed using coefficient of variation (CoV), GeNorm and NormFinder. Co-expressed genes were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using the on-line gene regression analysis tool GRACE. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were lower for prospective (19.49+/-2.53) vs retrospective (23.8+/-3.32) tissues (p<0.001) and shorter vs longer probes. Co-expressed genes ranked as the most stable genes in the TCGA cohort by GeNorm when analysed together but ranked lower when analysed individually omitting co-expressed genes indicating bias. Stability values were<1.5 for the 20 candidate genes in the prospective cohort. As they consistently ranked in the top ten by CoV, GeNorm and Normfinder, UBC, RPLP0, HMBS, GUSB, and TBP are the most suitable endogenous control genes for bladder cancer qPCR.

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Results of a randomized phase III study of dysphagia-optimized intensity modulated radiotherapy (Do-IMRT) versus standard IMRT (S-IMRT) in head and neck cancer (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Nutting C.; Rooney K.; Foran B.; *Pettit L.; Beasley M.; Finneran L.; Roe J.; Tyler J.; Roques T.; Cook A.; Petkar I.; Bhide S.; Srinivasan D.; Boon C.; De Winton E.; Frogley R.; Mertens K.; Emson M.; Hall E.

Citation:
Journal of Clinical Oncology; 2020; vol. 38 (no. 15)

Abstract:
Background: Most newly diagnosed oro-& hypopharngeal cancers (OPC, HPC) are treated with (chemo)RT with curative intent but at the consequence of adverse effects on quality of life. CRUK/14/014 investigated if using Do-IMRT to reduce RT dose to the dysphagia/aspiration related structures (DARS) improved swallowing function compared to S-IMRT. Method(s): Patients with T1-4, N0-3, M0 OPC/HPC were randomised 1:1 to S-IMRT (65 Gray (Gy)/30 fractions (f) to primary&nodal tumour; 54Gy/30f to remaining pharyngeal subsite&nodal areas at risk of microscopic disease) or Do-IMRT. The volume of the superior∣dle pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) (OPC) or inferior PCM (HPC) lying outside the high-dose target volume was set a mandatory mean dose constraint in Do-IMRT. Treatment allocation was by minimisation balanced by centre, use of induction/concomitant chemotherapy, tumour site&AJCC stage. Primary endpoint was mean MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) composite score 12 months after RT with 102 patients needed to detect a 10 point improvement (assuming S-IMRT score of 72, standard deviation (SD) 13.8; 90% power, 2-sided 5% alpha). Patients were blind to treatment allocation. Secondary endpoints included local control. Result(s): 112 patients (56 S-IMRT, 56 Do-IMRT) were randomised from 22 UK centres from 06/2016 to 04/2018. Mean age was 57 years; 80% were male; 97% had OPC; 90% had AJCC stage 3&4 disease; 86% had concomitant chemotherapy only, 4% induction&concomitant and 10% no chemotherapy. 111/112 had RT doses as prescribed (1 patient died before RT). Median of the mean inferior PCM dose was S-IMRT 49.8Gy (IQR 47.1-52.4) vs. Do-IMRT 28.4Gy (21.3-37.4), p < 0.0001; superior∣dle PCM dose was S-IMRT 57.2Gy (56.3-58.3) vs. Do-IMRT 49.7Gy (49.4-49.9), p < 0.0001. Do-IMRT had significantly higher MDADI scores: S-IMRT 70.3 (SD 17.3) vs. Do-IMRT 77.7 (16.1), p = 0.016. 3 local recurrences (1 S-IMRT, 2 Do-IMRT) have been reported. Conclusion(s): Do-IMRT reduced RT dose to the DARS and improved patient reported swallowing function compared with S-IMRT. This is the first randomised study to demonstrate functional benefit of swallow-sparing IMRT in OPC.

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Ten-Year Results of FAST: A Randomized Controlled Trial of 5-Fraction Whole-Breast Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (2020)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Brunt A.M.; Haviland J.S.; Sydenham M.; Bliss J.M.; *Agrawal R.K.; Algurafi H.; Alhasso A.; Barrett-Lee P.; Passant H.; Bliss P.; Bloomfield D.; Tremlett J.; Bowen J.; Donovan E.; Goodman A.; Harnett A.; Hogg M.; Kumar S.; Quigley M.; Sherwin L.; Stewart A.; Syndikus I.; Tsang Y.; Venables K.; Wheatley D.; Yarnold J.R.

Citation:
Journal of Clinical Oncology; Jul 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
PURPOSE: Previous studies of hypofractionated adjuvant whole-breast radiotherapy for early breast cancer established a 15- or 16-fraction (fr) regimen as standard. The FAST Trial (CRUKE/04/015) evaluated normal tissue effects (NTE) and disease outcomes after 5-fr regimens. Ten-year results are presented. METHOD(S): Women >= 50 years of age with low-risk invasive breast carcinoma (pT1-2 pN0) were randomly assigned to 50 Gy/25 fr (5 weeks) or 30 or 28.5 Gy in 5 fr of 6.0 or 5.7 Gy (1 week). The primary end point was change in photographic breast appearance at 2 and 5 years; secondary end points were physician assessments of NTE and local tumor control. Odds ratios (ORs) from longitudinal analyses compared regimens. RESULT(S): A total of 915 women were recruited from 18 UK centers (2004-2007). Five-year photographs were available for 615/862 (71%) eligible patients. ORs for change in photographic breast appearance were 1.64 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.49; P = .019) for 30 Gy and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.71; P = .686) for 28.5 Gy versus 50 Gy. alpha/beta estimate for photographic end point was 2.7 Gy (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9 Gy), giving a 5-fr schedule of 28 Gy (95% CI, 26 to 30 Gy) estimated to be isoeffective with 50 Gy/25 fr. ORs for any moderate/marked physician-assessed breast NTE (shrinkage, induration, telangiectasia, edema) were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55 to 2.89; P < .001) for 30 Gy and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.72; P = .248) for 28.5 Gy versus 50 Gy. With 9.9 years median follow-up, 11 ipsilateral breast cancer events (50 Gy: 3; 30 Gy: 4; 28.5 Gy: 4) and 96 deaths (50 Gy: 30; 30 Gy: 33; 28.5 Gy: 33) have occurred. CONCLUSION(S): At 10 years, there was no significant difference in NTE rates after 28.5 Gy/5 fr compared with 50 Gy/25 fr, but NTE were higher after 30 Gy/5 fr. Results confirm the published 3-year findings that a once-weekly 5-fr schedule of whole-breast radiotherapy can be identified that appears to be radiobiologically comparable for NTE to a conventionally fractionated regimen.

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The triple effect of the magseed for localisation of impalpable breast cancer: Significant reduction in re-excision rate, cost saving by reducing further surgery and high patient satisfaction (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Lake B.; *Wilson M.; *Thomas G.; *Williams S.; *Usman T.

Citation:
European Journal of Surgical Oncology; Jun 2020; vol. 46 (no. 6); e12

Abstract:
Introduction: Traditionally impalpable breast cancers have been localised with image guided techniques of wire guidance or ultrasound marking. Magseed is a small magnetic seed which is changing practice of localisation of these cancers. The aim of this study was to see if the change of practice of localisation to Magseed affected patient outcome evaluated by re-excision rate, specimen weight and patient satisfaction. Method(s): A change of practice service evaluation was conducted at the Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital of all patients who had imaged guided wide local excision for impalpable breast cancer from July 2017 to August 2019. Data recorded included tumour demographics, localisation method, size of tumour and specimen weight. Evaluation of localisation methods included re-excision rates, type of further surgery, cost saving in reduction in re-excision, and patient satisfaction. Result(s): 2017/2018 226 Traditional guided WLE were performed. 2018/2019 90 traditional guided WLE, and 106 Magseed WLE were performed. Tumour demographics, size of tumour were similar for localisation methods. The introduction of Magseed in our practice has resulted in a significant reduction in overall re-excision rates from 22.4 to 12%, (z =2.6616 p.00782), and average specimen weight from 40 to 27g (t= -3.2364, P.000716). Cost saving analysis of further surgery showed a saving of 34,457 with 48% less further operations following change of practice. 98% of patients had a very good/excellent experience of Magseed. Conclusion(s): Magseed demonstrates a triple effect on patient outcome with significant reduction in re-excision rate, cost saving by reducing further surgery and high patient satisfaction.

The histopathological correlation of magnetic resonance imaging-identified additional lesions detected in 2nd read breast MRIS (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Aksoy U.; *Barlow E.; *Williams S.; *Lake B.; *Metelko M

Citation:
European Journal of Surgical Oncology; Jun 2020; vol. 46 (no. 6), p. e19

Abstract:
Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging-identified additional lesions (MRALs) in breast cancer have always been a diagnostic dilemma as they may result in significant delay in management plans and sometimes cause overtreatment. Clinical guidelines for the management of breast cancer in the UK recommend second read MRIs in at least 50% of patients. In this audit project, our aim is to correlate the MRALs reported in 2nd read breast MRIs (2bMRI) with the histopathological outcomes.
Method(s): The patients who were referred to 2bMRIs between July 2018 and August 2019 were retrieved from the archives. 86 consecutive patients (mean age: 54) were included in the audit. First read MRIs were correlated with 2bMRI results and noted as; agreed, a larger lesion (>1cm) or additional foci reported, a smaller lesion or fewer number of additional foci reported. According to histopathology reports MRALs were classified as; proved malignant, benign or not applicable.
Result(s): In 80% (69/86) of the patients the 2bMRI reports agreed with the first and the management did not change. In 20% there was disagreement. Five true positive cases benefited from more extensive surgery. Eight false positive cases ended up with more extensive surgery.
Conclusion(s): Referral indications were in accordance with the guidelines and 5.8% of the patients benefited from the 2bMRIs. However, a significant number of the patients did not benefit from the 2bMRIs. Larger studies are needed to see the true benefit of 2bMRIs as they have the potential to delay the patient pathway and increase anxiety levels of breast cancer patients.

Routine Use of Swallowing Outcome Measures Following Head and Neck Cancer in a Multidisciplinary Clinic Setting (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Annette C. Zuydam, Simon N. Rogers, Kate Grayson, *Clare F. Probert

Citation:
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, May 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Introduction: Chemoradiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) can have a major impact on swallowing function and health-related quality of life. The use of outcome measures in early detection of patients with swallowing problems provides the opportunity for targeting speech and language therapy (SLT) interventions to aid adaption and promote better clinical outcomes.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess relationships between four outcomes measures over time, in a cohort of HNC patients, treated by (chemo-) radiotherapy.
Methods: Data were collected at 3 months and 12 months, on 49 consecutive patients with primary squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx, nasopharynx or hypopharynx stage T1–4, N0–2b, M0 disease.
Results: Out of 49 eligible patients, 45 completed assessment at 3 months and 20 at 12 months. The 3-month outcomes gave a strong indication of performance at 1 year. There were several strong correlations found between measures. The strongest was between the 3-month Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer (PSSHN) and the 12-month PSSHN (rs ¼ 0.761, n ¼ 17), the 12-month PSSHN and the 12-month
Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) (rs ¼ 0.823, n ¼ 20), and the 12-month University of Washington Head and Neck Quality of Life (UWQoL) swallow and the 12-month Water Swallow Test (WST) capacity (rs ¼ 0.759, n ¼ 17).
Conclusion: The UW-QoL swallow item and WST are easy to incorporate into routine care and should be used as part of a standard assessment of swallow outcome. These measures can serve to help screen patients for dysfunction and focus allocation of resources for those who would benefit from more comprehensive assessment and intervention by SLT.

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Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for early rectal cancer-can it be done safely with good outcomes at a in a UK district general hospital (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Vidyasankar V.; *Chakrabarthy A.; *McCloud J.; *Clarke R.

Citation:
Colorectal Disease; Sep 2019; vol. 21, S3, p. 54

Abstract:
Aim: Randomised controlled trials have demonstrated advantages of Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) for early rectal cancer resections. The aim of our study was to assess the safety and outcome of TEMS for early rectal cancer at a U.K district general hospital. Method(s): Between July 2011 to January 2017, 27 patients, 13 men and 14 women, Mean age 77 years, underwent TEMS. Mean lesion diameter was 49 mm. Patient selection was based on multidisciplinary decision. Follow up included colonoscopy, MRI and CT according to standard protocol. Patients were admitted for overnight observation and discharged the following day. Result(s): Mean operative time was 60 minutes. Average hospital stay was 24 hours. One patient (3.7%) had bleeding, three (11%) developed perforation, which were identified and repaired immediately. Two (7.4%) developed pyrexia, One patient (3.7%) developed minor stricture. One (3.7%) developed a recto-vaginal fistula. R0 resection was achieved in 81% and R1 resection was achieved in 19% of cancer cases. One patient (3.7%) developed local recurrence. No mortality. Conclusion(s): Our study demonstrates that TEMS for early rectal cancer can be safely performed in selected patients at a district general hospital, with outcomes comparable with international data.

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Magseed for Localisation of Impalpable Breast Cancer is associated with High Patient Satisfaction and Lower Re-excision Rates (2019)

Type of publication:
Poster presentation

Author(s):
*L.Deane, *B.Lake, *M.Wilson, *S.Williams, *M.Metelko, *G.Thomas, *S.Lewis, *L.Norwood, *T.Usman

Citation:
Poster presented at the International Cambridge Conference on Breast Cancer Imaging, July 2019

Link to poster [PDF]