An overview of exertional leg pain in the athlete (2024)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Crooks S.A.; *Paavana T.; *Heaver C.

Citation:
Orthopaedics and Trauma. 38(1) (pp 56-64), 2024. Date of Publication: February 2024.

Abstract:
Exertional leg pain is a common problem in the athletic population, presenting with a constellation of similar symptoms. Delayed or incorrect diagnosis and treatment may result in significant morbidity and avoidable cessation of activity. Multiple causes such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), nerve or vascular entrapment syndromes may be responsible. A thorough history and focused clinical examination is mandated, and may yield clues as to the definitive diagnosis. Investigative adjuncts include imaging, compartment pressure measurement and electrodiagnostic studies. Whilst specific management depends on the underlying cause, the mainstay of initial management is activity modification, with surgery reserved for those who fail to respond to conservative measures.

Improvement to assessment and provision of analgesia for patients with suspected Neck of Femur Fracture in ED (2023)

Type of publication:
Service improvement case study

Author(s):
*Oleg Lujanschi

Citation:
SaTH Improvement Hub, November 2023

Abstract:
To improve the assessment and provision of analgesia (where required) for patients presenting in ED with a suspected Neck of Femur Fracture to ensure all patients meet the national standard by 15 December 2023. Additionally, the aim is to improve the percentage of patients who receive an x-ray when presenting to ED with a suspected Neck of Femur Fracture in line with the national standard of 90 minutes by 15 December 2023.

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Musculotendinous ruptures of the achilles tendon had greater heel-rise height index compared with mid-substance rupture with non-operative management: A retrospective cohort study (2023)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Carmont, Michael R; Gunnarsson, Baldvin; Brorsson, Annelie; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina.

Citation:
Journal of Isakos. 2023 Dec 27.

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: Achilles tendon ruptures (ATRs) may occur at varying locations with ruptures at the mid-substance (MS) of the tendon most common, followed tears at the musculotendinous (MT) junction. There is scant literature about the outcome of MT ATR. This study compared the outcome of patients with a MT ATR with patients following a MS ATR. METHODS: The diagnostic features and clinical outcome of 37 patients with a MT ATR were compared with a cohort of 19 patients with a MS ATR. Patients in both groups were managed non-operatively and received the same rehabilitation protocol with weight-bearing rehabilitation in protective functional brace. RESULTS: From February 2009 to August 2023, 556 patients presented with an ATR. Of these, 37 (6.7 %) patients were diagnosed with a MT tear. At final follow-up, at 12 months following injury, the MT group reported an Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) of mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 83.6 (3.5) (95 % confidence interval (CI) 81.8, 85.4) and median (inter-quartile range (IQR)) ATRS of 86 points (78-95.5) and the MS group mean (SD) of 80.3 (8.5) (95%CI) 76.1, 80.5) and median (IQR) of 87 points (59-95) (p = 0.673). Functional evaluation, however, revealed statistically significant differences in mean (SD) heel-rise height index MT group 79 % (25) (95%CI 65.9, 92.1) and MS group 59 % (13) (95%CI 51.9, 67.1) (p = 0.019). In the MT rupture group, there were considerably less complications than the MS rupture group. CONCLUSIONS: When managed non-operatively, with only a 6 weeks period of brace protection, patients have little limitation although have some residual reduction of single heel-rise at the one-year following MT ATR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

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Ankle sprains: a review of mechanism, pathoanatomy and management (2023)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Zahra W.; *Meacher H.; *Heaver C.

Citation:
Orthopaedics and Trauma. 38(1) (pp 25-34), 2024. Date of Publication: February 2024.

Abstract:
Ankle sprains are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries. A sprain is defined as the stretching or tearing of ligaments; in the ankle these are the lateral ligamentous complex, deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis ligaments. The mechanism of injury dictates which ligaments get injured, with the most common being inversion injuries causing anterior talofibular ligamentous sprain. Initial management of an ankle sprain consists of protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation. After the first 72 hours, the treatment depends on the severity of the sprain, with physiotherapy forming the mainstay of treatment in the majority of cases. In addition to strengthening exercises proprioceptive re-training helps with rehabilitation. The goal of treatment is to prevent chronic instability from occurring. Aside from syndesmotic injuries, surgical treatment is rarely required in the acute setting. Delayed ligamentous reconstruction may be required if chronic instability occurs, and is described as being an anatomic or non-anatomical reconstruction. This article reviews the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical assessment and management of patients with ankle sprains.

Both gastrocnemius aponeurosis flaps and semitendinosus tendon grafts are effective in the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures - a systematic review (2023)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Nilsson N.; Stensota I.; Nilsson Helander K.; Brorsson A.; *Carmont M.R.; Concaro S.

Citation:BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 24(1) (no pagination), 2023. Article Number: 951. Date of Publication: December 2023.

Abstract:Introduction: A chronic Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is defined as an ATR that has been left untreated for more than four weeks following rupture. This systematic review aims to summarize the outcomes of chronic ATR treated using either a gastrocnemius aponeurosis flap or semitendinosus tendon graft. Method(s): A systematic search was conducted in three databases (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane), for studies describing outcomes after surgical treatment of chronic ATR using gastrocnemius aponeurosis flaps or semitendinosus tendon grafts with more than 10 patients included. The studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias using the Methodological Items used to assess risk of bias in Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). Result(s): Out of the 818 studies identified with the initial search, a total of 36 studies with 763 individual patients were included in this systematic review. Gastrocnemius aponeurosis flap was used in 21 and semitendinosus tendon graft was used in 13 of the studies. The mean (SD) postoperative Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) for patients treated with a gastrocnemius aponeurosis flap was 83 (14) points and the mean (SD) American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) was 96 (1.7) points compared with ATRS 88 (6.9) points and AOFAS 92 (5.6) points for patients treated with a semitendinosus tendon graft. The included studies generally had low-quality according to MINORS, with a median of 8 (range 2-13) for all studies. Conclusion(s): Both gastrocnemius aponeurosis flaps and semitendinosus tendon grafts give acceptable results with minimal complications and are valid methods for treating chronic ATR. The main difference is more wound healing complications in patients treated with a gastrocnemius aponeurosis flap and more sural nerve injuries in patients treated with a semitendinosus grafts. The current literature on the subject is of mainly low quality and the absence of a patient-related outcome measure validated for chronic ATR makes comparisons between studies difficult. Level of Evidence: Level IV.

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Lack of regional pathways impact on surgical delay: Analysis of the Orthopaedic Trauma Hospital Outcomes-Patient Operative Delays (ORTHOPOD) study (2023)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Ahmed H.E.; Baldock T.; Wei N.; Walshaw T.; Walker R.; Trompeter A.; Scott S.; Eardley W.G.P.; Stevenson I.; Yoong A.; Rankin I.; Dixon J.; Lim J.W.; Sattar M.; McDonald S.; Davies H.; Jones L.; Nolan M.; McGinty R.; Stevenson H.; Bowe D.; Sim F.; Vun J.; Strain R.; Giannoudis V.; Talbot C.; Gunn C.; Le H.P.D.; Bradley M.; Lloyd W.; Hanratty B.; Lim Y.; Brookes-Fazakerley S.; Varasteh A.; Francis J.; Choudhry N.; Malik S.; Vats A.; Evans A.; Garner M.; Zbaeda M.; Diamond O.; Baker G.; Napier R.; Guy S.; McCauley G.; King S.; Edwards G.; Lin B.; Davoudi K.; Haines S.; Raghuvanshi M.; Buddhdev P.; Karam E.; Nimmyel E.; Ekanem G.; Lateef R.; Jayadeep J.S.; Crowther I.; Mazur K.; Hafiz N.; Khan U.; Chettiar K.; Ibrahim A.; Gopal P.; Tse S.; Lakshmipathy R.; Towse C.; Al-Musawi H.; Walmsley M.; Aspinall W.; Metcalfe J.; Moosa A.; Crome G.; Abdelmonem M.; Lakpriya S.; Hawkins A.; Waugh D.; Kennedy M.; Elsagheir M.; Kieffer W.; Oyekan A.; Collis J.; Raad M.; Raut P.; Baker M.; Gorvett A.; Gleeson H.; Fahmy J.; Walters S.; Tinning C.; Chaturvedi A.; Russell H.; Alsawada O.; Sinnerton R.; Warwick C.; Dimascio L.; Ha T.T.; King T.; Engelke D.; Chan M.; Gopireddy R.; Deo S.; Vasarhelyi F.; Jhaj J.; Dogramatzis K.; McCartney S.; Ardolino T.; Fraig H.; Hiller-Smith R.; Haughton B.; Greenwood H.; Stephenson N.; Chong Y.; Sleat G.; Saedi F.; Gouda J.; Ravi S.M.; Henari S.; Imam S.; Howell C.; Theobald E.; Wright J.; Cormack J.; Borja K.; Wood S.; Khatri A.; Bretherton C.; Tunstall C.; Lowery K.; Holmes B.; Nichols J.; Bashabayev B.; Wildin C.; Sofat R.; Thiagarajan A.; Abdelghafour K.; Nicholl J.; Abdulhameed A.; Duke K.; Maling L.; McCann M.; Masud S.; Marshman J.; Moreau J.; Cheema K.; Rageeb P.M.; Mirza Y.; Kelly A.; Hassan A.; Christie A.; Davies A.; Tang C.; Frostick R.; Pemmaraju G.; Handford C.; Chauhan G.; Dong H.; Choudri M.J.; Loveday D.; Bawa A.; Baldwick C.; Roberton A.; Burden E.; Nagi S.; Johnson-Lynn S.; Guiot L.; Kostusiak M.; Appleyard T.; Mundy G.; Basha A.; Abdeen B.; Robertson-Smith B.; Hussainy H.A.; Reed M.; Jamalfar A.; Flintoft E.; McGovern J.; Alcock L.; Koziara M.; Ollivere B.; Zheng A.; Atia F.; Goff T.; Slade H.; Teoh K.; Shah N.; Al-Obaedi O.; Jamal B.; Bell S.; Macey A.; Brown C.; Simpson C.; Alho R.; Wilson V.; Lewis C.; Blyth D.; Chapman L.; Woods L.; Katmeh R.; Pasapula C.; Youssef H.; Tan J.; Famure S.; Grazette A.; Lloyd A.; Beaven A.; Jackowski A.; Piper D.; Lotfi N.; Chakravarthy J.; Elzawahry A.; Trew C.; Neo C.; Elamin-Ahmed H.; Ashwood N.; Wembridge K.; Eyre-Brook A.; Greaves A.; Watts A.; Stedman T.; Ker A.; Wong L.S.; Fullarton M.; Phelan S.; Choudry Q.; Qureshi A.; Moulton L.; Cadwallader C.; Jenvey C.; Aqeel A.; Francis D.; Simpson R.; Phillips J.; Matthews E.; Thomas E.; Williams M.; Jones R.; White T.; Ketchen D.; Bell K.; Swain K.; Chitre A.; Lum J.; Syam K.; Dupley L.; O'Brien S.; *Ford D.; *Chapman T.; *Zahra W.; Guryel E.; McLean E.; Dhaliwal K.; Regan N.; Berstock J.; Deano K.; Donovan R.; Blythe A.; Salmon J.; Craig J.; Hickland P.; Matthews S.; Brown W.; Borland S.; Aminat A.; Stamp G.; Zaheen H.; Jaibaji M.; Egglestone A.; Sampalli S.R.; Goodier H.; Gibb J.; Islam S.; Ranaboldo T.; Theivendran K.; Bond G.; Richards J.; Sanghera R.; Robinson K.; Fong A.; Tsang B.; Dalgleish J.; McGregor-Riley J.; Barkley S.; Eardley W.; Elhassan A.; Tyas B.; Chandler H.; McVie J.; Negus O.; Ravi K.; Qazzaz L.; Mohamed M.; Sivayoganthan S.; Poole W.; Slade G.; Beaumont H.; Beaumont O.; Taha R.; Lever C.; Sood A.; Moss M.; Khatir M.; Jeffers A.; Brookes C.; Dadabhoy M.; Bhattacharya R.; Singh A.; Beer A.; Hodgson H.; Rahman K.; Barter R.; Mackinnon T.; Frasquet-Garcia A.; Aldarragi A.; Warner C.; Pantelides C.; Attwood J.; Al-Uzri M.; Qaoud Q.A.; Green S.; Osborne A.; Griffiths A.; Emmerson B.; Slater D.; Altahoo H.; Scott H.; Rowland D.; O'Donnell J.; Edwards T.; Hafez A.; Khan B.; Crane E.; Axenciuc R.; Al-Habsi R.; McAlinden G.; Sterne J.; Wong M.L.; Patil S.; Ridha A.; Rasidovic D.; Searle H.; Choudhry J.; Farhan-Alanie M.M.; Tanagho A.; Sharma S.; Thomas S.; Smith B.; McMullan M.; Winstanley R.; Mirza S.; Hamlin K.; Elgayar L.; Larsen M.P.; Eissa M.; Stevens S.; Hopper G.P.; Fang Soh T.C.; Doorgakant A.; Yogeswaran A.; Myatt D.; Mahon J.; Ward N.; Reid S.; Deierl K.; Brogan D.; Little M.; Deakin S.; Baines E.; Jones G.; Boulton H.; Douglas T.; Jeyaseelan L.; Abdale A.; Islam A.; Atkinson K.V.; Mohamedfaris K.; Mmerem K.; Jamal S.; Wharton D.; Rana A.; McAllister R.; Sasi S.; Thomas T.; Pillai A.; Flaherty D.; Khan M.; Akkena S.; Shandala Y.; Lankester B.; Hainsworth L.

Citation:Injury. 54(12) (no pagination), 2023. Article Number: 111007. Date of Publication: December 2023. [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:Introduction: Current practice following injury within the United Kingdom is to receive surgery, at the institution of first contact regardless of ability to provide timely intervention and inconsiderate of neighbouring hospital resource and capacity. This can lead to a mismatch of demand and capacity, delayed surgery and stress within hospital systems, particularly with regards to elective services. We demonstrate through a multicentre, multinational study, the impact of this at scale. Methodology: ORTHOPOD data collection period was between 22/08/2022 and 16/10/2022 and consisted of two arms. Arm 1 captured orthopaedic trauma caseload and capacity in terms of sessions available per centre and patients awaiting surgery per centre per given week. Arm 2 recorded patient and injury demographics, time of decision making, outpatient and inpatient timeframes as well as time to surgery. Hand and spine cases were excluded. For this regional comparison, regional trauma networks with a minimum of four centres enroled onto the ORTHOPOD study were exclusively analysed. Result(s): Following analysis of 11,202 patient episodes across 30 hospitals we found no movement of any patient between hospitals to enable prompt surgery. There is no current system to move patients, between regional centres despite clear discrepancies in workload per capacity across the United Kingdom. Many patients wait for days for surgery when simple transfer to a neighbouring hospital (within 10 miles in many instances) would result in prompt care within national guidelines. Conclusion(s): Most trauma patients in the United Kingdom are managed exclusively at the place of first presentation, with no consideration of alternative pathways to local hospitals that may, at that time, offer increased operative capacity and a shorter waiting time. There is no oversight of trauma workload per capacity at neighbouring hospitals within a regional trauma network. This leads to a marked disparity in waiting time to surgery, and subsequently it can be inferred but not proven, poorer patient experience and outcomes. This inevitably leads to a strain on the overall trauma system and across several centres can impact on elective surgery recovery. We propose the consideration of inter-regional network collaboration, aligned with the Major Trauma System.

Predictors of mortality in periprosthetic fractures of the hip: results from the national PPF study (2023)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Nasser, Ahmed Abdul Hadi Harb; Prakash, Rohan; Handford, Charles; Osman, Khabab; Chauhan, Govind Singh; Nandra, Rajpal; Mahmood, Ansar; Dewan, Varun; Davidson, Jerome; Al-Azzawi, Mohammed; Smith, Christian; Gawad, Mothana; Palaiologos, Ioannis; Cuthbert, Rory; Wignadasan, Warran; Banks, Daniel; Archer, James; Odeh, Abdulrahman; Moores, Thomas; Tahir, Muaaz; Brooks, Margaret; Biring, Gurdeep; Jordan, Stevan; Elahi, Zain; Shaath, Mohammed; Veettil, Manoj; De, Chiranjit; Handford, Charles; Bansal, Mohit; Bawa, Akshdeep; Mattar, Ahmed; Tandra, Varun; Daadipour, Audrina; Taha, Ahmed; Gangoo, Shafat; Srinivasan, Sriram; Tarisai, Mandishona; Budair, Basil; Subbaraman, Krishna; Khan, Farrukh; Gomindes, Austin; Samuel, Arjun; Kang, Niel; Kapur, Karan; Mainwaring, Elizabeth; Bridgwater, Hannah; Lo, Andre; Ahmed, *Usman; Khaleeq, *Tahir; El-Bakoury, Ahmed; Rashed, Ramy; Hosny, Hazem; Yarlagadda, Rathan; Keenan, Jonathan; Hamed, Ahmed; Riemer, Bryan; Qureshi, Arham; Gupta, Vatsal; Waites, Matthew; Bleibleh, Sabri; Westacott, David; Phillips, Jonathan; East, Jamie; Huntley, Daniel; Masud, Saqib; Mirza, Yusuf; Mishra, Sandeep; Dunlop, David; Khalefa, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Balakumar; Thibbaiah, Mahesh; Payton, Olivia; Berstock, James; Deano, Krisna; Sarraf, Khaled; Logishetty, Kartik; Lee, George; Subbiah-Ponniah, Hariharan; Shah, Nirav; Venkatesan, Aakaash; Cheseldene-Culley, James; Ayathamattam, Joseph; Tross, Samantha; Randhawa, Sukhwinder; Mohammed, Faisal; Ali, Ramla; Bird, Jonathan; Khan, Kursheed; Akhtar, Muhammad Adeel; Brunt, Andrew; Roupakiotis, Panagiotis; Subramanian, Padmanabhan; Bua, Nelson; Hakimi, Mounir; Bitar, Samer; Najjar, Majed Al; Radhakrishnan, Ajay; Gamble, Charlie; James, Andrew; Gilmore, Catherine; Dawson, Dan; Sofat, Rajesh; Antar, Mohamed; Raghu, Aashish; Heaton, Sam; Tawfeek, Waleed; Charles, Christerlyn; Burnand, Henry; Duffy, Sean; Taylor, Luke; Magill, Laura; Perry, Rita; Pettitt, Michala; Okoth, Kelvin; Pinkney, Thomas.

Citation:Injury. 54(12):111152, 2023 Oct 24.

Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Periprosthetic fractures (PPFs) around the hip joint are increasing in prevalence. In this collaborative study, we aimed to investigate the impact of patient demographics, fracture characteristics, and modes of management on in-hospital mortality of PPFs involving the hip. METHODS: Using a multi-centre cohort study design, we retrospectively identified adults presenting with a PPF around the hip over a 10-year period. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to study the independent correlation between patient, fracture, and treatment factors on mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,109 patients were included. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.3%. Multivariable analyses suggested that age, male sex, abbreviated mental test score (AMTS), pneumonia, renal failure, history of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and deep surgical site infection were each independently associated with mortality. Each yearly increase in age independently correlates with a 7% increase in mortality (OR 1.07, p=0.019). The odds of mortality was 2.99 times higher for patients diagnosed with pneumonia during their hospital stay [OR 2.99 (95% CI 1.07-8.37) p=0.037], and 7.25 times higher for patients that developed renal failure during their stay [OR 7.25 (95% CI 1.85-28.47) p=0.005]. Patients with history of PVD have a six-fold greater mortality risk (OR 6.06, p=0.003). Mode of treatment was not a significant predictor of mortality. CONCLUSION: The in-hospital mortality rate of PPFs around the hip exceeds 5%. The fracture subtype and mode of management are not independent predictors of mortality, while patient factors such as age, AMTS, history of PVD, pneumonia, and renal failure can independently predict mortality. Peri-operative optimisation of modifiable risk factors such as lung and kidney function in patients with PPFs around the hip during their hospital stay is of utmost importance.

Outcomes Following Internal Bracing for Anterior Sternoclavicular Joint Instability: A Systematic Review (2023)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Kapur K.; *Zaki P.; Chaudhury S.; Tytherleigh-Strong G.; Panayiotou D.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery. Conference: ASiT Surgical Conference 2023. Liverpool United Kingdom. 110(Supplement 7) (pp vii168), 2023.

Abstract:
Aim: There is a paucity of data regarding optimal treatment strategies for atraumatic sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) instability, as this is a relatively uncommon aetiology. Atraumatic SCJ instability may be due to capsular laxity, muscle sequencing or a combination of both. This study aims to systematically review the literature regarding SCJ instability with isolated capsular laxity to determine whether anterior capsular surgical plication and augmentation with internal bracing can prevent further episodes of instability in a population that is refractory to non-operative management. Method(s): Studies that reported functional surgical outcomes were identified using the search terms "sternoclavicular AND joint AND dislocation AND reconstruction". Nine studies and a total of 111 patients were identified to have met the inclusion criteria. Result(s): Of the 111 patients identified, 9% of patients reported residual instability. 5.4% required a reoperation due to persistent impairment of shoulder function related to SCJ instability or osteoarthritis. There were satisfactory reported outcomes in 91% of patients. Conclusion(s): Internal stabilisation techniques for atraumatic sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) instability have shown to be an effective method to improve shoulder function and patient symptoms. Revision rates remained at only 5.4% with a significant improvement in functional status. Complications were rare and included haematoma formation and discharging wound site. Therefore, internal bracing techniques should be considered in patients with chronic anterior SCJ instability after a course of failed conservative treatment.

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Improving the care of patients with obesity needing joint replacement - time for a combined ortho-bariatric approach? (2023)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Sinha Y.; Ikram S.; Ballinger T.; Gouveia S.; Burak M.; Wiggins T.; *Bathgate S.;

Citation:Obesity Surgery. Conference: 14th Annual Scientific Meeting of British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society, BOMSS 2023. Birmingham United Kingdom. 33(Supplement 1) (pp S129), 2023. Date of Publication: July 2023.

Abstract:Introduction Patients with obesity awaiting joint replacement surgery of the lower limbs may benefit from referral to weight-management services. (1) NICE provides BMI criteria for referral to tertiary bariatric services, however this does not always translate into clinical practice. (2, 3) Our aim was to assess the number and management of patients with obesity attending orthopaedic clinics for consideration of lower limb joint replacement. Methods A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all patients attending orthopaedic clinics for joint replacement secondary to osteoarthritis, in the lower limbs, at a single centre, over a two year period. Details of demographics, BMI, comorbidities and management plans were recorded from electronic patient records. Results 335 patients (60% of 558 cases) had BMI recorded and were used for subsequent analysis. 36% (n=120) of patients were eligible for referral to weight-management services. 10% (n=32) were refused joint replacement surgery due to BMI, of which 81% (n=26) were eligible for referral to weight-management services. Instead of surgery, these 32 patients were offered: physiotherapy (n=10, 38%), analgesia (n=12, 46%), non-specific weight-loss advice (n=16, 62%), GP referral for weight-loss (n=6, 23%), and tertiary service referral for weight-loss (n=2, 8%). Conclusions BMI is an important risk factor for orthopaedic operations and increased efforts should be made to record it pre-operatively. An MDT approach would capture the notable proportion of patients who are not being appropriately referred to weight-management services which may impact on their quality of life and postoperative outcomes.

An overview of bone cement: Perioperative considerations, complications, outcomes and future implications (2023)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):*Patel R.; Mcconaghie G.; Webb J.; Laing G.; *Roach R.; Banerjee R.

Citation:Journal of perioperative practice 2023. Date of Publication: 26 May 2023. [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:Polymethyl methacrylate is commonly known as bone cement and is widely used for implant fixation in various orthopaedic arthroplasty and trauma surgery. The first bone cement use in orthopaedics is widely accredited to the famous English surgeon, John Charnley, who in 1958, used it for total hip arthroplasty. Since then, there have been many developments in cementing techniques in arthroplasty surgery. This overview aims to cover the perioperative considerations of bone cement, including cementing techniques, current outcomes and complications such as bone cement implantation syndrome. The overview will additionally consider future developments involving bone cement in orthopaedic arthroplasty.