A Complex Case of Adalimumab Induced Pleuropericarditis in a Patient with Underlying Ulcerative Colitis (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Abbasi A, *Day S, Subahani M, *Townson G

Citation:
Asploro Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Case Reports, 2021 Jan; 4(1) p.16-21

Abstract:
Introduction: Adalimumab is an anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) monoclonal antibody and an important part of the treatment regime for autoimmune conditions including inflammatory bowel disease. We present a case of adalimumab induced pleuropericarditis and discuss the diagnosis challenges we faced.
Case History: A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency department with 3 days history of headache, malaise, fever and right-sided chest pain. He was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis 8 months ago but failed to respond to mesalazine, requiring high dose steroids to induce disease remission. His mesalazine was stopped after 4 months and he was initiated on adalimumab 2 months prior to the current presentation. At presentation, he had a temperature of 38.7 °C (101.6 °F) but no other physical signs. His inflammatory markers were raised, and the chest x-ray was clear. He was started on empirical intravenous antibiotics on suspicion of the underlying infective process. On day 4 the patient developed a new pleural rub and crepitations on both lung bases. An urgent echocardiogram and computed tomography scan of the thorax abdomen and pelvis revealed pleural effusion and a 1.8 cm diameter pericardial effusion. Extensive investigation including virology screen, autoimmune screen and pleural fluid analysis were normal.
Diagnosis, Management and Outcome: This case was discussed in a multidisciplinary meeting. A diagnosis of pleuropericarditis secondary to adalimumab was made. Adalimumab and antibiotics were stopped, and he was started on a course of oral steroids. The patient responded well to the treatment and his symptoms resolved.
Conclusion: Rare drug toxicity should be part of differential diagnosis, especially in young patients with unusual presentation. An early multidisciplinary approach is crucial for a positive outcome. The patient should be actively involved in decision making to improve long term outcome.

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A randomised, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a targeted release oral cyclosporine formulation in the treatment of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis: Efficacy results (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Bloom S.; Iqbal T.; Nwokolo C.; *Smith M.; O’Donoghue D.; Hall J.; Dzyngel B.

Citation:
Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis; Mar 2019; vol. 13

Abstract:
Background: Cyclosporine (CsA) is an effective treatment for patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC), and studies have shown that it has an impact on disease activity comparable to the anti-TNF agent,
infliximab.1,2 Concerns regarding systemic toxicities have limited its role to short-term induction therapy and as a bridge to other therapies. ST-0529 is a novel low dose, controlled release formulation of CsA. A Phase 1 dose-ranging study demonstrated that tissue concentrations improved when it is given twice daily (BID).3
Methods: A total of 118 subjects with mild (baseline DAI < 6) or moderate (baseline DAI >= 6) UC were
randomised 1:1 to receive 75 mg ST-0529 once daily or placebo (53 and 65 patients, respectively) for 4 weeks in a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase IIa study. Patients using UC medications (eg low-dose steroids, 5-aminosalicylates, and immunomodulatory agents) on screening could continue them if agreed to maintain a stable dosing regimen during the study. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of ST-0529 in inducing clinical remission (DAI score <=2, with no individual score >1 and rectal bleeding subscore of 0 or 1). The secondary objectives included clinical response, mucosal and histological healing, safety, and tolerability.
Result(s): A numerical although not statistically significant advantage of ST-0529 over placebo was found for rates of clinical remission (ST-0529: 13.2%; placebo: 6.3%, p = 0.2211) and clinical response (ST-0529: 30.2%; placebo: 18.8%, p = 0.1923). There were no differences between the treatment groups for mucosal and histological healing. ST-0529 was safe and well-tolerated. A post hoc subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate effects by disease severity. Clinical remission and clinical response rates in subjects with moderate (baseline DAI >=6) and mild (baseline DAI <6) disease (ITT, N = 118)
Conclusion(s): In this pilot study, ST-0529 given once daily, was safe, well tolerated, and showed a numerically higher, but not statistically significant difference in remission rate in patients with mild-to-moderate UC compared with placebo after 4 weeks of treatment. In the post hoc analysis, differences in the clinical response between treatment subgroups achieved statistical significance in some subgroups, the largest clinical response rate in moderate UC patients taking 5-aminosalicylates and/or steroids. These preliminary data, added to the data from a Phase 1 study, support further development of ST-0529 as a treatment for the induction and maintenance of remission in UC patients with moderate to severe disease. (Table Presented).

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