Optimising patients with long-term spinal cord injury for nephrectomy: A review of pre-, peri- and post-operative factors to safeguard outcomes (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

*Donati-Bourne J.; *Mohamed W.G.E.; *Pillai P.; *O’Dair J.; Kasmani Z.; Bhatt R.I.

Journal of Clinical Urology; 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Objectives: To review the potential challenges a urologist may encounter when embarking on simple/partial/radical nephrectomy in patients with long-term spinal cord injury and propose strategies to pre-empt and manage these.
Material(s) and Method(s): Comprehensive literature review via PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar
searching for relevant scientific articles published to date in English. Recommendations for strategies to safeguard surgical outcomes discussed with a panel of experienced upper-tract urologists.
Result(s): Pre-operative considerations: – urethral assessment via flexible cystoscopy due to higher incidence of urethral pathology in spinal cord injury; – assessing for chronic constipation and distended bowel; and – considering glomerular filtration rate assessment by radio-isotope techniques, such as 51chromium-EDTA Perioperative considerations: – adequate theatre staffing for safe patient transfer; and – planned choice of incision, due to higher incidence of previous abdominal surgery, stoma bags and/or foreign body devices. Post-operative considerations: – ensuring attending medical staff are trained to recognise autonomic dysreflexia; – early remobilisation with physiotherapists experienced in treating spinal cord injury; and – attentive antibiotic stewardship due to higher risk of hospital-acquired or urinary infections
Conclusion(s): Patients with long-term spinal cord injury pose significant potential challenges in the pre-, periand post-operative stages of nephrectomy. Familiarisation and optimisation of such factors is recommended to safeguard outcomes.
Level of Evidence: Not applicable for this multicentre audit.