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Rhodes J.; Subramanian S.; Martin K.; Probert C.; Flanagan P.; Horgan G.; Mansfield J.; Parkes M.; Hart A.; Dallal H.; Iqbal T.; *Butterworth J.; Culshaw K.
Gut; Jan 2021; vol. 70
Introduction Mucosal E. coli are increased in Crohn's disease (CD). They replicate within macrophages and are then inaccessible to penicillins and gentamicin. Hydroxychloroquine is used with doxycycline to treat Whipple's disease. It raises macrophage intra-vesicular pH and inhibits replication of bacteria that require acidic pH. Ciprofloxacin and doxycycline are also effective against E. coli within macrophages. Methods Adult patients with active CD (CDAI>220 plus CRP>=5 mg/l and/or faecal calprotectin >250 ugram/g) were randomised to receive (open label) either oral budesonide (Entocort CR 9 mg/day 8 weeks, then 6 mg/day 2 weeks and 3 mg/day 2 weeks) or antibiotics/hydroxychloroquine (AB/ HCQ) – oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bd, doxycycline 100 mg bd, hydroxychloroquine 200 mgs tds for 4 weeks, followed by doxycycline 100 mg bd and hydroxychloroquine 200 mgs tds for 20 weeks. Use of anti-TNF in the previous 3 months was an exclusion. Primary endpoints were remission (CDAI
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