Cardiovascular disease morbidity is associated with social deprivation in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH): a study comparing FH individuals in UK primary care and the UK Simon Broome register linked with secondary care records (2022)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Iyen B.; Qureshi N.; Roderick P.; *Capps N.; Durrington P.N.; McDowell I.F.W.; Cegla J.; Soran H.; Schofield J.; Neil H.A.W.; Kai J.; Weng S.; Humphries S.E.

Atherosclerosis Plus. Conference: HEART UK 35th Annual Medical & Scientific Conference. Virtual. 49(Supplement 1) (pp S4-S5), 2022. Date of Publication: October 2022

Background: Measures of social deprivation are associated with higher cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity and mortality. To determine if this is also seen in subjects with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH), CVD morbidity has been examined in participants in the UK primary care database (CPRD) and in the UK Simon Broome (SB) register using linkage to the UK secondary care Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES). Method(s): A composite CVD outcome was analysed (first HES outcome of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stable or unstable angina, stroke, TIA, PVD, heart failure, PCI and CABG). The measure of socio-economic status/deprivation used was the English index of multiple deprivation (IMD). Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazards ratios (HR) for incident CVD and mortality [95% CI] in each IMD quintile. <br/>Result(s): We identified 4,309 patients with FH in UK CPRD primary care database (followed from 1988 to 2020), free from CVD, and 2988 SB register participants, with linked secondary care HES records. In both groups, the prevalence of FH was considerably lower in the most deprived quintile (60% in CPRD and 52% in SB). CPRD patients in the most deprived quintile (IMD-5) had the highest prevalence of obesity and of smoking compared to those from IMD quintiles 1,2,3 and 4 (p-value for trend, all <0.001). Compared to least deprived, the most deprived individuals had the highest risk of composite CVD (unadjusted HR 1.71 [CI 1.22-2.40]), however, on adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption, there were no statistical differences in CVD risk between socio-economic groups. In the FH Register patients there was an increase in the incidence rates and hazards ratios for composite CVD with increasing quintiles of deprivation. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption, this effect remained statistically significant (quintile 5 vs 1, HR = 1.83 [1.54-2.17]. Conclusion(s): Patients with FH are underdiagnosed in lower socio-economic groups. In both CPRD and the SB Register the most deprived FH patients had the highest risk of CVD and mortality, but in CPRD but not in the SB register this was largely explained by smoking and alcohol consumption. Clinicians should adopt more effective strategies to detect FH in lower socio-economic groups, and to optimise risk factor management and to support lifestyle changes and medication adherence for this group.

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