Assessment of chronic obstructive airways disease in heart failure : An analysis of current practice (2018)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Muthusami R.; *Mahmoud M.; *Crawford E.; *Makan A.; *Ahmad N.; *Srinivasan K.S.; *Moudgil H.; *Candassamy N.

Citation:
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; May 2018; vol. 197

Abstract:
RATIONALE Heart Failure (HF) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are global epidemics incurring significant morbidity and mortality with overlapping symptoms & risk factors. Whereas with other coexisting co-morbidities such as with Diabetes Mellitus and Ischaemic Heart Disease, much work has been done to concurrently improve outcomes from both pathologies, whether anything is uniformly undertaken in practice to firstly recognize and secondly improve outcomes from HF and COPD is less understood. The objective here was to establish our current pattern of assessment to identify potential areas of improvement that would enable us to better manage the modern multi-morbid patient. METHODS Electronic medical records of all patients admitted to our District General Hospital (serving fairly static population 250,000) over a 6 month period to end December 2016 and referred internally to our Heart Failure Specialist Team were assessed. Data for all admitted cases were cross-referenced to Electrocardiography (ECHO) and Pulmonary Function Lab Databases. RESULTS 116 patients (63% male) with mean (SD, range) age 74.9 (11.7, 32-100) years had been admitted and of these 37% had died over the subsequent 12 months follow up period. Of the total, 113 (97%) had prior transthoracic cardiac ECHO (updated within a two year window); Mean estimated Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) was 41%. Comparatively, only 31 (27%) patients had undergone Spirometry testing at our centre over the preceding 10 year period and of these approximately half (51%) had shown obstructive spirometry. Collectively, 44 (38%) were known to have any Obstructive Airways Disease with 32 (28%) being COPD but a slightly higher figure at 50 (43%) were on inhaler treatment. . Sub-analysing, the 59 (51%) specifically with Ischaemic Heart Disease as opposed to other causes for Heart Failure (Valvular Heart Disease, Cardiomyopathy etc.) had a higher 12 month mortality rate (49%) as well as higher prevalence of known COPD (32%), higher proportion of patients with obstructive spirometry (65%) and patients on inhaler therapy (45%). Only 2 of the 7 patients on Amiodarone had Spirometry. CONCLUSION The basic provision of spirometry to Heart Failure patients, and in particular those with Ischaemic Heart Disease, needs to be improved with our findings probably consistent with others providing the same models of diagnosis driven care. Our findings are in a population with established Heart Failure and potentially in their final years of life but there may be improved quality of life and care planning, if assessing those presenting earlier.

Iron deficiency in heart failure: A retrospective review of current practice and patient outcomes in a district general hospital (2018)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Chatrath N.; *Kundu S.; *Makan J.

Citation:
Heart; Jun 2018; vol. 104, Supp 6

Abstract:
Iron deficiency (ID) affects up to 50% of patients with heart failure (HF) with higher rates in decompensated, hospitalised patients.1 ID is associated with poor functional capacity and recurrent hospital admissions. The 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for management of HF advocate measurement of ferritin and Transferrin Saturations (TSAT) in all HF patients. ID is defined by serum ferritin <100 mg/L or 100-299 mg/ L and TSAT <20%0.2 Intravenous Iron therapy is recommended for any patient meeting these parameters. This retrospective study looked at the diagnosis and management of ID in HF patients in a district general hospital. All 111 (n=111) inpatients with a diagnosis of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), admitted between April-October 2016 were included. The mean age of the population was 75 (30100), 37% female and 63% male. 64% (n=71) were anaemic (Male n=46, Female n=25) as defined by our laboratory haemoglobin reference ranges for gender. Only 51% (n=57) of all patients had Ferritin checked during admission or within 3 months of discharge with an average Ferritin of 161 mg/L (11-1432). 30.6% (n=34) of all patients had absolute iron deficiency (Ferritin <100 mg/L) and 14.4% (n=11) had ferritin in the range 100300 mg/L, in which further TSAT testing to confirm functional iron deficiency is recommended but is not performed locally unless specifically requested by the clinician. Only 4.5% (n=5) of all patients had further investigations looking into causes of ID, including gastro-intestinal work-up. 47.8% (n=53) died in the 1 year follow-up period with 9% (n=10) not surviving past the initial admission. Of the 101 patients surviving the initial admission, there was a total of 135 hospital admissions within the follow-up period, 58% (n=78) of which were directly related to HF. 11.7% of all patients (n=13) were prescribed oral iron therapy on discharge and only 2 out of all patients had intravenous iron therapy during admission or within 6 months of discharge. This study highlights the high readmission and mortality rates of hospitalised HF patients and that ID is an underdiagnosed comorbidity in this population. A new protocol has been proposed which involves mandatory testing of ferritin, and TSAT if required, at the time of diagnosis and during regular follow-up. Local research is underway to further evaluate the benefits of iron replacement in HF and the effects of the proposed protocol on this population.

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