Investigating sleep disorders: Are we able to target the right population? (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Ibrahim J.; *Ali A.; *Khan M.Z.; *Radzali M.; *Crawford E.; *Makan A.; *Ahmad N.; *Srinivasan K.; *Moudgil H.

Citation:
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; May 2019; vol. 199 (no. 9)

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: With an increase in referrals to investigate sleep disordered breathing it is important to ensure appropriate targeted investigation. Our traditional use of the Epworth Sleepiness Scores (ESS) in screening and/or guiding treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is at best based on equivocal and sometimes conflicting published evidence. In evaluating our practice, our objectives presently were (1) to profile our patients and nature of their disease, and (2) to assess the role of Epworth scores in investigating these patients. METHOD(S): Retrospective review of 200 successive adults referred to this department over an 18 month period to end December 2017. Data were extracted from medical records and analysed using SPSS statistics packages appropriately for normal and nonparametric distribution with statistically significant findings reported at p<0.05. RESULT(S): Mean (SD, range) age of patients was 53.2 (13.8, 22 to 84) years with 55% males. Comparing those diagnosed with (n=152) to those without OSAHS (n=48), patients with disease tended to be older at 54.7 (13.3, 24-85) versus 48.5 (14.7, 22-79) years, had higher BMI at 36.8 (8.7, 21.5- 69.4) versus 32.6(8.5, 19.5-51.9) kg/m2 with more positively diagnosed from the males investigated (92/111 versus 60/89). Markers of disease severity were as expected with higher levels among those diagnosed with disease: Apnoea Hypopnoea Index (AHI) 25 versus 2.3, Oxygen desaturation Index (ODI) (at 4%) 25.9 versus 2.3, and time spent with oxygen saturation below 90% at 25.9 versus 8.3%. The ESS (n=121) did not differ between groups, respectively 11.3 (5.9, 0-24) versus 12.4 (6.2, 0-24), p=0.395 (not significant). Findings were similar analysed by stepwise logistic regression. None of the markers of disease severity correlated with ESS (Spearman rho= -0.04, p=0.675, NS). CONCLUSION(S): The relatively high (76%) prevalence of disease in these patients investigated suggests appropriately targeted investigation; whereas findings related to increasing age, male gender, and increased BMI are as expected, the distribution of the ESS again does not show the ability to discriminate and conversely had found relatively over-reporting of symptoms among those without disease and under-reporting of those with disease but not at statistically significant levels.

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Autoregulation versus defaecation: An unusual side effect of CPAP (2014)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Stone H., *Fazal F., *Moudgil H., *Ahmad N., *Naicker T., *Srinivasan K.

Citation:
European Respiratory Journal, September 2014, vol./is. 44 (Suppl 58)

Abstract:
Introduction Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is the first line treatment for symptomatic moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Side effects of CPAP are well known; however faecal incontinence secondary to CPAP is not documented. We present the case of a patient with OSA who developed this on commencing CPAP. Case A 50 year old female with ulcerative colitis had a total colectomy in 1992 and a subsequent ileo-anal pouch reconstruction. She was referred to the sleep clinic as she was experiencing daytime somnolence (Epworth score of 15/24). Her sleep study demonstrated severe obstructive sleep apnoea with an apnoea-hypopnoea index of 35.2, and for 12.5% of the study, her Sa02 were below 90%. She was commenced on CPAP using auto titration. Initially, she experienced problems with faecal leakage – defecating up to 4 times per night. During this time her mean CPAP pressure had been 17cm water. She was subsequently converted CPAP at 10cms fixed maximum pressure and now tolerates CPAP very well; having a degree of faecal leakage only 2 or 3 times a week, rather than every night as previously. Her Epworth score has now fallen to 9/24, her AHI is 2.5 and her OSA symptoms have improved, leading to better treatment compliance. Conclusion It was hypothesised that the patient’s problems were related to increased intra-thoracic pressure from the CPAP, resulting in raised intra-abdominal pressure, putting a strain on the ileo-anal pouch reconstruction giving rise to the faecal incontinence. This resolved with lower CPAP pressures, resolving the faecal frequency whilst still adequately treating the OSA. Limiting pressures should be considered in the future in patients with colorectal disease to avoid faecal incontinence.

Link to more details or full-text: http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/44/Suppl_58/P2292.short?rss=1