Perioperative outcomes afterlaparoscopic cholecystectomy in the elderly patients: Asystematic review and meta-analysis (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Kew T.; Lin A.; Ekeozar C.; Bundred J.; Evans R.; Griffiths E.; Kamarajah S.; *Karri S.; Singh P.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Jun 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 5-6

Abstract:
Aim: The need to perform elective and emergency cholecystectomy in an ever ageing population increases yet these risks are poorly quantified. The study aims to review the current evidence to quantify further the postoperative risk of cholecystectomy in the elderly population.
Method(s): A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were conducted and a meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the recommendations of the Cochrane Library and PRISMA guidelines.
Result(s): This review identified 99 studies incorporating 333,041 patients. Increasing age was significantly associated with increased rates of overall complications (OR 2.33, CI95%: 2.00-2.71, p<0.001), major complication (OR 2.32, CI95%: 1.52-3.54, p<0.001), risk of conversion to open cholecystectomy (OR 2.32, CI95%: 1.95-2.76, p<0.001), risk of bile leaks (OR 2.05, CI95%: 1.18-3.55, p<0.001), risk of postoperative mortality (OR 5.99, CI95%: 3.77-9.52, p<0.001) and was significantly associated with increased length of stay (MD 2.12 days, CI95%: 1.01-3.24, p<0.001).
Conclusion(s): Post-operative outcomes such as overall and major complications are significantly higher in all age cut-offs. There is six-fold increase in perioperative mortality which increases by nine-fold in patients >80 years old. This study confirms preconceived suspicions of risk in elderly patients undergoing cholecystectomy and will aid treatment planning and informed consent.

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Boat propeller transection of hemithorax-successful multidisciplinary surgical reconstruction (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Cheruvu S.; Oo K.T.M.; Erel E.; Satur C.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Jun 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 37

Abstract:
A 69 year old man fell into canal and was drawn into the propeller of his canal boat that resulted in transection of the right thoracic cavity and the right upper arm. Emergency helicopter transfer was made to our major trauma centre for multidisciplinary surgical care. Injuries included a full thickness antero-posterior transection from the sternum to beyond the tip of the scapula, and an open right midshaft humeral fracture with wound extending obliquely into the axilla. The entire thoracic cavity was contaminated by canal water. There was severe haemodynamic and cardiorespiratory compromise requiring level 3 intensive care. Following emergency resuscitative management, multidisciplinary surgical care was provided by the cardiothoracic, plastic and orthopaedic surgery teams utilising innovative operative techniques. Multistage operative management of chest wall required initial damage control surgery with debridement and negative pressure therapy. After 4 days of intensive care physiological stabilisation, reconstruction of the thoracic defect was undertaken with specialist thoracic titanium implants and the chest wall was reconstructed. This was a major thoracic trauma case treated successfully using revolutionary surgical techniques at the Royal Stoke Hospital. The subsequent impact on practice for thoracic polytrauma has led to improved survival rates by 75%.

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Assessing the adequacy of radiographs for hip fractures (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Mulrain J.; *Omar N.; *Burston B.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Jun 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 138

Abstract:
Aim: Radiographs for the assessment of femoral neck fractures are frequently inadequate for the visualisation of the proximal femur. A low centred radiograph of both hips offers enough information but is rarely achieved.We sought to determine the proportion of hip fractures where initial radiographs adequately visualised the femur to encompass the proposed surgical management.We also sought to find the proportion of patients who required repeat radiographs and whether this was affected by time of presentation. Method(s): A retrospective review of the radiographs of hip fractures presenting to our institution, over a three-month period was undertaken. The timings, number and adequacy of radiographs was assessed. Result(s): Radiographs of 89 patients were reviewed. Most radiographs were taken between 8am and 5pm. Radiographs of 58 patients were centred on the pelvis rather than the hips. Patients presenting overnight were more likely to have adequate radiographs. Despite a duplicate x-ray rate of 48%, most patients (55%) had inadequate visualisation of the proximal femur. The average excess radiation exposure by duplicate radiographs was 2.31mSv per patient. Conclusion(s): The majority of patients had inadequate visualisation of the fractured proximal femur on their radiographs.Many had excessive radiographs performed. This was not improved by increased staffing levels during daylight hours.

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Acute appendicitis-can we shorten the length of hospital stay? (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
British Journal of Surgery; Jun 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 197

Citation:
*Jones G.; *Bura K.; *Rink J.

Abstract:
Introduction: Appendicectomy is the most commonly performed emergency general surgical operation in the UK. Hospital episode data revealed that our unit had longer than average length of stay (LOS). We designed a study to examine our length of stay and management of acute appendicitis. Method(s): We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients undergoing appendicectomy from January to March 2019. Cases were identified from theatre logbooks. Data collection included demographics, pre and post-operative LOS, CT imaging and histology. The data was then examined to see what factors were associated with length of stay and where improvements might be realised. Result(s): 71 patients were identified. Mean LOS was 81 hours, mean time to theatre from admission was 22 hours withmean post-operative LOS at 58 hours. There was a difference between females vs males LOS 95 vs 67 hours. CT scan was obtained in 26 patients and the mean time to theatre in these patients was longer at 27 hours compared to 20 hours in the non- CT group. Patients who took longer to get to theatre had increased LOS. Conclusion(s): Rapid access to CT could shorten time to theatre. Getting patients to theatre quicker might shorten post-operative length of stay.

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‘Daycase parathyroidectomy: Time to change the norm?’ (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Chang J.; Neophytou C.; Howard E.; Houghton A.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 37

Abstract:
Introduction: The most recent BAETs audit report of 2017 shows a surprisingly low rate of same-day discharge following parathyroidectomy (10%). In our unit we have developed a simple and safe protocol which allows same day discharge for almost all patients (95%). The 2017 BAETS report has 11,463 patients recorded for primary hyperparathyroidism. Following this simple protocol could save over 9,500 inpatient bed days.
Method(s): Demographics, histology, biochemistry and length of stay were identified for all patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism between 01/01/2010 and 31/12/2019. Following surgery all patients were discharged on Calcichew D3 one tablet tds, with arrangements for serum calcium analysis and outpatient appointment at 7 and 10 days Results: We performed 264 parathyroid procedures during the study period. The cohort had a median age of 63 (range 15 – 90). Day-case procedures were carried out in 95% (n=249). 10 patients stayed 24 hours, 4 for 48 hours and 1 patient for 4 days (urgent parathyroidectomy following acute medical admission with symptomatic hypercalcaemia). 1 patient was admitted overnight for observation of bleeding wound (no return to theatre). The remainder were admitted for a mixture of social and anaesthetic reasons. 6 patients (2%) had 30 day morbidity: 2with symptoms of relative hypocalcaemia (not admitted), 1 patient with hypocalcaemia requiring intravenous calcium, 1 seroma, 1 patient presented with an exacerbation of COPD and 1 haematoma.
Conclusion(s): We have shown that same-day discharge after parathyroid surgery is safe and ought to become the norm in other units.

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IMPACT. Operating Department Human Factors Training for the whole team (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Allman T.; Schunke N.; Fenton C.; Branfield L.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 14

Abstract:
Aims: We identified a gap in effective staff training and developed a novel truly multidisciplinary training day to capture the whole team and expose them to simulation in their usual environment amongst usual peers. Our aim was to maximise the impact factor of multidisciplinary operating department human factors training and utilise high fidelity simulation to expose unknown unknowns and improve theatre safety.
Method(s): Novel human factors training run onsite. On a rotational basis designated theatre lists are blocked for the mandatory training to ensure all members of the theatre teams can attend ranging from porters to consultants and team leaders. Line managers enforce attendance and feedback is collated. Anaesthesia retained oversight and organisation. 3 main sessions run in parallel by teams of multidisciplinary facilitators.

  1. WHO Steps to Safer Surgery: Trust ‘STOP THE LINE’ video and discussion.
  2. Raising concerns: discussion lead by consultant surgeon.
  3. Theatre simulation & debrief: High fidelity in the operating theatre.

Result(s): The training received exemplary feedback and review from all staff across specialties.Multiple gaps in knowledge, particularly the location of rarely used emergency equipment and drugs was exposed and this allowed for on the spot, high yield training. Candidate feedback revealed the impact of our training was maximised by the facilitation led by consultant surgeons. Conclusion(s): Human factors training is notoriously variable and limited. We’ve collaborated surgical, anaesthetic and theatre teams to deliver high impact and resourceful training by addressing the human factors that mould our own learning.

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Laparoscopic ligation of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) for the management of type II endoleak post endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Mashar R.; *Gangwar A.; *McCloud J.; *Shawish E.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 96-97

Abstract:
Aim: Type II endoleaks following EVAR are caused by patent aortic collaterals causing retrograde blood flow, with the IMA being involved in 45-85% of all cases. Transarterial embolization has been described as a management option, but with a high failure rate. We present laparoscopic ligation as an alternative therapeutic strategy, with both technical success and a favourable outcome.
Method(s): An 80-old hypertensive male was diagnosed with a type II endoleak post-EVAR. Shrinkage of the sac was seen initially from 58mm to 52mm on surveillance-computed tomography (CT) of the aorta at 6 months with apersistent type II endoleak involving the IMA and lumbar arteries. Surveillance at 18 months demonstrated a persistent endoleak with enlargement of the sac to 65 mm. After a failed attempt with arterial embolization, he underwent laparoscopic ligation of the IMA Results: The procedure time was 22 minutes and his length of stay was 2 days, with no signs or symptoms of bowel ischaemia. A CT at 2 weeks demonstrated sac shrinkage to 58 mm. Conclusion(s): There have been reports of persistent endoleaks being associated with adverse outcomes, with their primary management remaining controversial. IMA ligation has been associated with sac shrinkage in 65% of patients, an important prognostic factor, and there have been no reported complications thus far. Therefore, it should be strongly considered as an option for management of type II endoleaks in centres with both vascular and general surgical expertise being available

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The benefits of multidisciplinary human factors training in theatre (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Jones R.; *Branfield L.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 75

Abstract:
Aims: The awareness of Human Factors (HF) and their role in patient safety is vital in the theatre environment.
The aim of this audit was therefore to assess the awareness of human factors within our theatre team during a Human Factors Training Course at a District General Hospital.
Method(s): The Human Factors Training Course started with a questionnaire assessing roles, experience, and awareness of HF. It also looked at staff morale. The course involved a presentation and 2 simulation scenarios in theatre. After completion, there was a post course questionnaire looking at awareness of human factors, effects on staff morale and impact on patient care.
Result(s): Of the respondents, experience varied from 1 to 10+ years. The pre-course awareness of HF averaged 6.1 out of 10. The opinions on morale averaged at 6.7 out of 10, and the effect of HF training on morale averaged 8.4 out of 10. All respondents believed that the course could improve patient care. Post course awareness of HF increased and staff morale also increased as a consequence of the course.
Conclusion(s): From the results we can see that the awareness of human factors within the cohort prior to training was relatively low. Post course, we can see an increase in terms of awareness of human factors. As well as providing a training opportunity, this course had a positive effect on staff morale, and vitally, it was thought that the course would have positive impact on patient care.

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Development of internal validation of clinical prediction models for outcomes of complicated intra-abdominal infection (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Ahmed, S; Bonnett, L; Melhuish, A; Adil, M T; Aggarwal, I; Ali, W; Bennett, J; Boldock, E; Burns, F A; Czarniak, E; Dennis, R; Flower, B; Fok, R; Goodman, A; Halai, S; Hanna, T; Hashem, M; Hodgson, S H; Hughes, G; Hurndalm, K-H; Hyland, R; Iqbal, M R; Jarchow-MacDonald, A; Kailavasan, M; Klimovskij, M; Laliotis, A; Lambourne, J; Lawday, S; Lee, F; Lindsey, B; Lund, J N; Mabayoje, D A; Malik, K I; Muir, A; Narula, H S; Ofor, U; Parsons, H; *Pavelle, T; Prescott, K; Rajgopal, A; Roy, I; Sagar, J; Scarborough, C; Shaikh, S; Smart, C J; Snape, S; Tabaqchali, M; Tennakoon, A; Tilley, R; Vink, E; White, L; Burke, D; Kirby, A

Citation:
The British Journal of Surgery; Apr 30;108(4):441-447

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with cIAI in a multicentre study and to develop clinical prediction models (CPMs) to help identify patients at risk of mortality or relapse.METHODS A multicentre observational study was conducted from August 2016 to February 2017 in the UK. Adult patients diagnosed with cIAI were included. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to develop CPMs for mortality and cIAI relapse. The c-statistic was used to test model discrimination. Model calibration was tested using calibration slopes and calibration in the large (CITL). The CPMs were then presented as point scoring systems and validated further.RESULTS Overall, 417 patients from 31 surgical centres were included in the analysis. At 90 days after diagnosis, 17.3 per cent had a cIAI relapse and the mortality rate was 11.3 per cent. Predictors in the mortality model were age, cIAI aetiology, presence of a perforated viscus and source control procedure. Predictors of cIAI relapse included the presence of collections, outcome of initial management, and duration of antibiotic treatment. The c-statistic adjusted for model optimism was 0.79 (95 per cent c.i. 0.75 to 0.87) and 0.74 (0.73 to 0.85) for mortality and cIAI relapse CPMs. Adjusted calibration slopes were 0.88 (95 per cent c.i. 0.76 to 0.90) for the mortality model and 0.91 (0.88 to 0.94) for the relapse model; CITL was -0.19 (95 per cent c.i. -0.39 to -0.12) and – 0.01 (- 0.17 to -0.03) respectively.CONCLUSION Relapse of infection and death after complicated intra-abdominal infections are common. Clinical prediction models were developed to identify patients at increased risk of relapse or death after treatment, although these require external validation.

Oral and maxillofacial surgery patient satisfaction with telephone consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Horgan T.J.; *Alsabbagh A.Y.; *McGoldrick D.M.; *Bhatia S.K.; *Messahel A.

Citation:
The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery; Apr 2021; vol. 59 (no. 3); p. 335-340

Abstract:
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic most oral and maxillofacial surgical (OMFS) units have moved to conducting patient consultations over the telephone. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ satisfaction with telephone consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective survey was conducted of OMFS patients at our hospital who had telephone consultations between 1 April – 8 June 2020. The survey was conducted by independent interviewers and used the Generic Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (G-MISS) along with a previously published additional questionnaire. Variables recorded included age, gender, theme of consultation, grade of clinician, and type of consultation. Statistical analysis was performed to assess for any differences between patient groups. The records of 150 consecutive patients were reviewed and 135 met inclusion criteria. A total of 109 patients completed the survey giving a response rate of 80.74%. The total G-MISS score for satisfaction was high, which indicates a high level of satisfaction among all patients. We found no statistical difference in satisfaction when comparing patients in terms of gender, age, theme of consultation, or level of clinician. A significant difference was found in compliance levels between review and new patients, with review patients demonstrating higher compliance levels (p=0.004). Overall, 83.48% of patients said they would be willing to have a telephone consultation in future. The majority of patients in this study reported high levels of satisfaction with telephone consultations. New patients reported lower levels of compliance which may suggest this type of consultation is less suited to telephone consultation.

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