Emotional distress and adjustment in patients with end-stage kidney disease: A qualitative exploration of patient experience in four hospital trusts in the West Midlands, UK (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Sein K.; Damery S.; Combes G.; Baharani J.; *Nicholas J.

Citation:
PLoS ONE; Nov 2020; vol. 15 (no. 11)

Abstract:
Objectives To explore patient perceptions and experiences of mild-to-moderate emotional distress and the support offered by kidney units to patients with end-stage kidney disease. Methods In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews with patients (n = 46) being treated for endstage kidney disease in four hospital Trusts, with data analysed thematically. Results Patients described multiple sources of distress and talked about the substantial burden that emotional challenges raised for their ability to manage their condition and develop coping strategies. Many patients did not feel it appropriate to disclose their emotional issues to staff on the kidney unit, due to a perceived lack of time for staff to deal with such issues, or a perception that staff lacked the necessary skills to provide resolution. Five themes were identified from the patient interviews, broadly related to patients’ experience of distress, and the support offered by the kidney unit: I) the emotional burden that distress placed on patients; ii) patients’ relationship with the treatment for their condition; iii) strategies for coping and adjustment; iv) patient-staff interactions and the support offered by the kidney unit, and v) the mediating impact of the treatment environment on patient experience of distress and their ability to raise emotional issues with staff. Conclusions Many patients felt unprepared for the likelihood of experiencing emotional issues as part of their condition, for which pre-dialysis education could help in managing expectations, along with support to help patients to develop appropriate coping strategies and adjustments. These findings demonstrate the importance of recognising patient distress and ensuring that talking about distress becomes normalised for patients with end-stage kidney disease.

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Metabolic stone screening – can education improve adherence to national guidelines? (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Ravindraanandan M.; *Jayawardena P.

Citation:
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology; Jan 2020; vol. 3 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Nephrolithiasis is a common urological disease affecting approximately 13% of the global population. Identifying a preventable cause during follow-up for stone formation is a necessary factor in reducing recurrence. The majority of kidney stones are comprised of calcium, with oxalate and phosphate compounds accounting for approximately 80% of stone formers. Serum analysis can be used to identify the levels of calcium in the blood, excluding metabolic causes for stones. Current NICE guidelines recommend performing a metabolic screen during an acute admission. Adherence to these guidelines from clinicians can be poor. We aim to see whether education can improve serum metabolic requests from clinicians in the UK. Method A case-control study was performed in a single rural district general hospital in the UK. Patients who presented with renal colic were analyzed retrospectively for four months, looking at serum metabolic screen requests. Two months of education was then delivered to acute departments, with a further prospective study performed following this for six months. Outcomes were then compared between both groups to see if there was an improvement in serum requests following the delivery of local education. Results A total of 124 patients were included in our study. 50 patients were analyzed in cohort A over a 4-month period. Complete serum analysis was performed on 22% (n=11) of patients. Incomplete serum analysis was performed on 58% (n-29) of patients with uric acid being missed on all of them. 10 patients had no metabolic serum analysis performed at all, with 1 patient having a previous history of stones. A total of 74 patients were analyzed in cohort B over a 6-month period. This was following the 2 months of departmental education given by urologists. Complete serum analysis was performed on 24% (n=18) of patients. Incomplete serum analysis was performed on 55% (n=41) of patients with uric acid being missed from all of them. The remaining 21% of patients (n=15) had no metabolic serum screen performed at all. There was no significant difference seen between both cohorts after comparing metabolic serum requests before and after department education for 2 months (p=0.7287). Conclusion Improving adherence to clinical guidelines for metabolic screening has proved difficult with departmental teaching alone, with very little improvement achieved. Nevertheless, formal face-to-face education is advocated to reinforce knowledge in junior doctors managing renal stones.

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