Postpartum haemorrhage and risk of mental ill health: A population-based longitudinal study using linked primary and secondary care database (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Parry-Smith W.; Coomarasamy A.; Nirantharakumar K.; Okoth K.; Subramanian A.; Gokhale K.M.; Chandan J.S.; Sumilo D.; Humpston C.

Citation:
Journal of Psychiatric Research; May 2021; vol. 137 ; p. 419-425

Abstract:
There is a gap in the literature investigating the impact of obstetric complications on subsequent mental ill health outcomes. The aim of this study was to establish the association between post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) and mental ill health. We conducted a retrospective open cohort study utilizing linked primary care (The Health Improvement Network (THIN)) and English secondary care (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)) databases, from January 1, 1990 to January 31, 2018. A total of 42,327 women were included: 14,109 of them were exposed to PPH during the study period and 28,218 unexposed controls were matched for age and date of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mental illness among women with and without exposure to PPH were estimated after controlling for covariates. Women who had had PPH were at an increased risk of developing postnatal depression (adjusted HR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.01-1.21) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (adjusted HR: 1.17, 95%CI: 0.73-1.89) compared to women unexposed to PPH. When restricting the follow-up to the first year after childbirth, the adjusted HR for PTSD was 3.44 (95% CI 1.31-9.03). No increase in the overall risk was observed for other mental illnesses, including depression (adjusted HR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.87-1.01), severe mental illness (adjusted HR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.40-1.08, p = 0.239) and anxiety (adjusted HR: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.90-1.09). PPH is associated with a significant increase in the risk of developing postnatal depression and PTSD in the first year after delivery. Active monitoring for mental illness should form an integral part of the follow-up in women who suffered a PPH.

Study on Lithium Monitoring amongst Patients in a Community Mental Health and Primary Care Setting in Rural England (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Nicholas Savage , Jessica Green, Madhavan Seshadri, Madhusudan Deepak Thalitaya

Citation:
Psychiatria Danubina, 2017; Vol. 29, Suppl. 3, pp 481-486

Abstract:
Background: Lithium is widely used as a mood stabilizer in managing Bipolar Disorder. It is also licensed as an augmenting agent for recurrent depression and treatment resistant depression. However, it has a narrow therapeutic index with potentially significant side effects and adverse drug interactions. Toxicity is one of the main concerns for prescribers and serum levels should be checked regularly. Also, due to the adverse effects on Kidneys and Thyroid, there are strict guidelines to monitor the kidney as well as thyroid functions periodically. Whilst the need to monitor blood biochemistry is well established, less well recognized is the need to monitor patients’ physical health by means of annual checks of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance against the NICE CG185 guidelines. Hereford is a rural town in England with a population of about 180000. Currently, the Herefordshire part of 2gether Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust does not have clearly agreed shared care protocols for Lithium monitoring. Lithium monitoring is done by GPs as part of QOF targets. As Psychiatrists recommend treatment with lithium, they have the responsibility to have an updated results and act on these appropriately. Therefore, an important aspect of this audit was to identify monitoring gaps that may result from the dual ownership of patient care.
Results: We found that 80% of cases complied with NICE guidance as regards blood monitoring however, only 40% of cases were compliant as regards checks on the physical health parameters of BMI and weight.
Conclusion: The blood biochemistry of patients on lithium is generally well monitored however, physical health assessment is rarely completed with the required annual frequency and, waist circumference is almost never measured; either on initiation of lithium therapy or, on an on-going basis. More needs to be done to promote awareness of the need to monitor the physical health of
patients on lithium and, in particular, to ensure that these checks include measurement of waist circumference. We believe that to improve monitoring of patients on lithium, shared care protocols should be developed between mental health services and GP services.

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Cardiovascular risk assessment in psychiatric inpatient setting (2016)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Dahmer E., *Lokunarangoda N.C., Romain K., Kumar M.

Citation:
European Psychiatry, March 2016, vol./is. 33/(S281)

Abstract:
Objectives To assess the general cardiac health of inpatients in acute psychiatric units and to evaluate the practice of ECG use in this setting. Aims Overall cardiac risk is assessed using QRISK2. Clinically significant ECG abnormality detection by psychiatric teams are compared with same by cardiologist. Methods Ten percent of patients (n = 113) admitted to five acute psychiatric wards during a period of 13 months across three hospital sites, covering a population of 1.1 million, were randomly selected. Electronic health care records were used to collect all data, in the form of typed entries and scanned notes. An experienced cardiologist, blind to the psychiatrist assessments, performed ECG analysis. The QRISK2 online calculator was used to calculate 10-year cardiovascular risk as recommended by NIHR, UK. Results A score of 10% or more indicates a need for further intervention to lower risk.13.5% of patients had a QRISK2 score of 10-20%, 5.2% had a score of 20-30%, and 1 patient had a QRISK2 score > 30%. In total, 19.7% had a QRISK2 of 10% or greater. A total of 2.9% had prolonged QTC interval (> 440 ms), with 2.9% having a borderline QTC (421-440). A total of 34.3% of ECGs were identified by the ward doctors as abnormal, with action being taken on 41.6% of these abnormal ECGs. Cardiologist analysis identified 57.1% of ECGs with abnormalities of potential clinical significance. Conclusions One in five patients admitted to psychiatry wards have poor cardiac health requiring interventions. Though QTC interval prolongation is rare, half of patients may have abnormal ECGs that require further analysis.