Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons (2018)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

Citation:
Journal of medical screening; Dec 2018; vol. 25 (no. 4); p. 178-182

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons.METHODS An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. RESULTS Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area.CONCLUSIONS Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

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Approaches to alcohol screening in secondary care: a review and meta-analysis (2017)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Walsh S.; Haroon S.; Nirantharakumar K.; Bhala N.

Citation:
The Lancet; Nov 2017; vol. 390

Abstract:
Background Alcohol misuse is common among patients accessing secondary care and an important cause of premature disability and death. The objective of this review was to summarise approaches to alcohol screening in secondary care, including the diagnostic accuracy, uptake, yield, and implementation challenges. Methods Search terms for alcohol, screening, and secondary care were combined in Medline, EMBASE, and other bibliographic databases for English language studies published from Jan 1, 2000, to Sept 4, 2015. We included studies and reviews of any design that evaluated alcohol screening with questionnaires or biochemical tests among adolescents and adults in secondary care. The primary outcomes were the diagnostic accuracy, uptake, and yield of alcohol screening. A random-effects proportion meta-analysis summarised screening uptake and yield, stratified by clinical setting. Findings 97 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included, with data from 1 213 761 screened patients. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDITConsumption (AUDIT-C) were the most widely validated screening tests and demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and uptake. Overall, uptake for alcohol screening in secondary care was 79% (95% CI 74-84; n=45 studies, 477 533 of 604 471 screened patients) and the highest uptake was in outpatient clinics at 91% (82-96; n=8, 208 245 of 228 841). Overall, the proportion of patients screening positive for alcohol misuse was 28% (23-32, n=44; 135 741 of 484 788) with the highest yield in outpatient clinics of 31% (22-41; n=7, 72 270 of 233 128). However, there was significant heterogeneity in estimates of both uptake and yield of alcohol screening (I2>90%). Interpretation Alcohol screening in secondary care is likely to have a high uptake and yield, particularly in outpatient clinics. AUDIT and AUDIT-C are the most widely validated screening tools for alcohol misuse in secondary care and have high diagnostic accuracy and uptake. The review included a large number of studies, and a range of clinical settings and patient groups, strengthening the generalisability of the findings. However, a systematic assessment of risk of bias was not conducted and study selection was performed by one reviewer. Further research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alcohol screening in secondary care.

The impact of age on the art of mammography and how to adapt accordingly (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Lake, B.; *Cielecki, L.; *Williams, S.; *Worrall, C.; *Metelko, M.

Citation:
Radiography; Nov 2017; vol. 23 (no. 4) e120–e121

Abstract:
Introduction Breast cancer is increasingly a disease of the elderly, and combined with the NHS Breast Screening Extension means that more elderly patients are having mammography. Increasing age can make mammography more technically difficult. This is a technical note detailing the results of a local audit which may be of interest due to potential service implications. Method A retrospective audit of the first year of screening extension of The Shropshire Breast Screening Programme. Aims to collect data on patient demographics and describe the technical adaptations developed in Shropshire. Results Breast screening extension has increased by 2.5 times the number of women aged 70–74 screened, and doubled the overall numbers of women over 70 screened. Significantly more older patients are being screened to present technical challenges to a screening programme. Data was obtained from a month of screening showed that 29% of patients over 70 needed extra time for positioning. Reasons included 22% difficulty in obtaining adequate positioning and 15% needed a relative to aid with consent. Discussion In the Shropshire screening programme different technical adaptations have been developed and are key to ensuring adequate images. These include double appointments, two radiographers, thorough assessment, steeper angles, seated examinations, from-below imaging and pre-planning for subsequent screen. Conclusion Significantly more older women are having breast screening due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer and the Breast Screening Programme extension. Increasing age can significantly increase time taken for adequate imaging and present technical challenges. Development of technical adaptations to art of mammography is key to achieve adequate images.

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A Model for care: 6 year experience of recruitment into breast cancer trials – a single centre perspective (2015)

Type of publication:
Poster presentation

Author(s):
Dr S Khanduri Consultant Clinical Oncologist and Sr H Moore Trust Lead Research Nurse

Citation:
Poster presented at the National Clinical Research Institute Cancer Conference, November 2015

Abstract:
The National Institute for Health research has been advised of the need to see sustained improvement in the performance of NHS providers in initiating and delivering clinical research. At Shrewsbury and  Telford NHS Trust a dedicated trials team have supported the breast oncology service to improve trials recruitment.

Over a 6 year period 1373 patients were identified as potentially eligible for opportunity to enter clinical trials and 39.8% accepted, 25.8% declined, 5 % were subsequently ineligible. A comprehensive  screening program with a dedicated clinical trials team to support patients with information can  enhance clinical trial recruitment and improve patient care. We support this as a model for care.

Link to more details or full-text: Available by e-mail from the author