Paediatric Injuries Pre And During COVID-19 Requiring an Operative Intervention: The District General Hospital Experience (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):*Howard E.; *Arshad S.; *Kabariti R.; *Roach R.

Citation:British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2021; vol. 108, Supplement 6

Abstract:Aim: To assess the effect of lockdown and the following summer period on paediatric trauma patients who required an operative intervention in a district general hospital. Method(s): A single centre retrospective audit was performed on all paediatric patients <16 years requiring an operative intervention. Two study periods were assessed-pre-COVID (22/03/2019-30/09/2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent summer period (26/03/ 2020-26/09/2020). Data were collected on patient demographics, type of injury sustained, and intervention performed. Result(s): During the COVID-19 pandemic 119 operations were performed, compared to 238 operations performed before the pandemic. Distal radius fractures were the most common injury both during and before the pandemic. However, during the pandemic there was a higher incidence of both hand injuries and lower limb lacerations. The most common type of operation both before and during the pandemic was manipulation under anaesthetic, but there was an increased incidence of washouts performed during the pandemic. Conclusion(s): Despite extensive restructuring of services due to COVID-19, 119 operations were performed during the pandemic. However, this is 119 fewer operations than the same period of the previous year. The reduced rate of operations could be a consequence of increased parental supervision, and less outdoor activity during the pandemic period, but further research is necessary.

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Organising a surgical conference during the COVID-19 pandemic-is it 'virtually' the same? (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Hashmi Y.; Sahu M.A.; Hatt K.; Osman S.; Bhuiyan Z.A.; *Ahmed U.

Citation:British Journal of Surgery; Sep 2021; vol. 108, Supplement 6

Abstract:Introduction: Surgical conferences are invaluable events for healthcare professionals; they provide opportunities to engage with upcoming scientific discoveries, network professionally with peers as well as expand learning through lectures and workshops. For medical students, conferences provide an opportunity to expand understanding beyond the undergraduate curriculum in an interactive manner. COVID-19 has caused disruption to the organisation and attendance of in-person conferences (IPCs). Virtual conferences (VCs) offer a viable solution, allowing delegates to attend from the comfort of their own homes. Method(s): The aim of our study was to evaluate an organised VC and explore the perceived benefits and limitations of VCs compared to IPCs. A virtual one-day trauma & orthopaedics (T&O) conference was organised involving lectures, workshops, poster, and oral presentations. Anonymous questionnaire forms were distributed to delegates following the conference to assess the aims of our paper. Result(s): From 106 responses, 96.2% rated the conference as 'Excellent' or 'Good' with 92.5% stating that it increased their passion for T&O surgery. Based on a five-point Likert scale (5= strongly agree, 1= strongly disagree), mean score of agreement for preferring VCs to IPCs was 3.30(+/- 1.24). Key advantages of the VC were a lower cost (70.8%) and not having to travel (77.4%), whereas the main limitation was the inability to participate in hands-on workshops (84.9%). Conclusion(s): Despite the success of our VC, delegate feedback indicates a mixed response comparing VCs to IPCs. We share our findings to encourage similar events to be organised and for other specialties.

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Emotional Resilience and Bariatric Surgical Teams: a Priority in the Pandemic (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Graham Y.; Mahawar K.; Omar I.; *Riera M.; Bhasker A.; Wilson M.

Citation:British Journal of Surgery; Oct 2021; vol. 108, Supplement 7

Abstract:The infection control measures implemented as a result of COVID-19 led to a postponement of bariatric surgical procedures across many countries worldwide. Many bariatric surgical teams were in essence left without a profession, with many redeployed to other areas of clinical care and were not able to provide the levels of patient support given before COVID-19. As the pandemic continues, some restrictions have been lifted, with staff adjusting to new ways of working, incorporating challenging working conditions and dealing with continuing levels of stress. This article explores the concept of emotional labour, defined as 'inducing or suppressing feelings in order to perform one's work', and its application to multidisciplinary teams working within bariatric surgery, to offer insight into the mental health issues that may be affecting healthcare professionals working in this discipline.

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23-hour stay following total parathyroidectomy in renal patients (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):*Neophytou C.; *Chang J.; *Howard E.; *Houghton A.

Citation:British Journal of Surgery; Oct 2021; vol. 108, Supplement 7

Abstract:Aim: Total parathyroidectomy in end-stage renal failure (ESRF), is an effective way to improve or stabilise calcium and parathormone levels and thus improve renal osteodystrophy. Previous BAEST guidelines were not in favour of true day-case neck surgery due to the risk of airway compromise from bleeding. Additionally, ESRF patients are at risk of profound hypocalcaemia after total parathyroidectomy. Patients undergoing total parathyroidectomy are prescribed Alfacalcidol 4mcg daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Following surgery under GA on a morning list, the potassium and calcium levels are checked in the afternoon. Calcium levels are then monitored daily for 3 days and subsequently when required. Oral Alfacalcidol is continued at the same dose until the nephrologists advise otherwise. Method(s): All ESRF patients undergoing total parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism were identified between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2019 from a prospectively maintained electronic database. Demographics, biochemistry, length of stay (LoS) and outcomes were analysed. Result(s): There were 43 (30 male) total parathyroidectomies. The median age was 53 (range 14 – 78), and median LoS 1 day (range 0 -13). 26 patients (60%) were discharged within 23 hours (26% were day-case). Prolonged stay was due to calcium replacement (n=8) or dialysis (n=4) requirements. Pre- and post-operative calcium values over 2.49mmol/L were significantly related to 23-hour stay (p=0.010482 and p=0.000263 respectively). No 30-day re-admissions were observed Conclusion(s): Careful patient selection and adherence to a perioperative management protocol in total parathyroidectomy may enable early discharge within 23 hours. Preoperative calcium levels help predict this outcome.

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Fascial defect closure in laparoscopic incisional/ventral hernia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized, controlled trials (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Rehman S.; *Akhtar M.S.; Khan M.; Sains P.; Sajid M.S.

Citation:British Journal of Surgery; Oct 2021; vol. 108, Supplement 7

Abstract:Aims: Closure of fascial defect (CFD) during laparoscopic incisional/ ventral hernia repair (LIVHR) remains a controversial issue which requires further investigations to reach a solid conclusion. The objective of this study is to present a systematic review comparing the outcomes of randomized controlled trials evaluating the defect closure versus no-defect closure in patients undergoing LIVHR. Method(s): A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials reporting the fascial defect closure in patients undergoing LIVHR until January 2021 published in Embase, Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane databases was performed using the principles of metaanalysis. Result(s): A total of four RCTs involving 443 patients were included. In the random effects model analysis, using the statistical software Review Manager, defect closure during LIVHR showed no difference in hernia recurrence (risk ratio (RR), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.31, 2.57; z=0.21; P=0.84). In addition, the post-operative complications (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.16; z=1.41; P=0.16), duration of operation (Standardized mean difference (SMD), -0.04; 95% CI, -0.52, 0.43; z=0.18; P=0.86) and hospital stay (SMD, 0.27; 95% CI, -0.02, 0.56; z=1.80; P=0.07) were also statistically similar in both groups. CFD was associated with an increased post-operative pain score (SMD, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.61, 3.03; z=2.95; P=0.003). Conclusion(s): Fascial defect closure in patients undergoing LIVHR does not demonstrate any superiority over no-defect closure in terms of recurrence, post-operative morbidity, post-operative pain duration of operation and length of hospital stay.

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The post graduate virtual learning environment: An effective platform for the delivery of a surgical teaching programme in the West Midlands (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):El-Sayed C.; *Ahmed U.; *Farquharson A.

Citation:British Journal of Surgery; Oct 2021; vol. 108, Supplement 7

Abstract:Aim: The Postgraduate Virtual Learning Environment (PGVLE) is a digital platform developed by HEEWM in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to deliver a virtual teaching programme to surgical trainees. The programme is delivered through the BigBlueButton; an integrated virtual classroom. All teaching sessions are recorded and archived to allow trainees to review content at their convenience. We performed a contemporaneous study to review the effectiveness and quality of the platform in delivering teaching and suggest its future role in the surgical curriculum. Method(s): Anonymised feedback was gathered of trainee's perspective of the platform experience, the quality of teaching and the archived content. All trainees were General Surgery higher trainees (HST) (ST3- ST8). The data from sequential teaching days was analysed. Result(s): Of 90 HST, on average 40 attended each monthly training day (consistent with pre-COVID attendance). 122 trainee responses were completed. 68% of respondents were between ST3-ST5. 91% rated the administration and delivery of the teaching sessions as excellent or very good. 16% of trainees watched the archived sessions after the teaching day of which 46% felt it met their educational expectations. Conclusion(s): The PGVLE is an effective platform for the delivery of a virtual surgical teaching programme. It met with high levels of trainee satisfaction in the context of the pandemic. The archived content provides advantages to consolidation of learning. It is thought that the PGVLE platform will become a key feature of the surgical training programme in a hybrid learning model, related to relevant curricula, in the future.

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Paediatric anaphylaxis 'EduCAKEtion' in 10-minutes: A multicentre initiative (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Dhesi A.; Mathias F.; Willets J.; Makwana N.; Halton F.; *Sohal I.; *Clarkson A.; *Brown K.

Citation:Clinical and Experimental Allergy; Dec 2021; vol. 51 (no. 12); p. 1664

Abstract:Objectives: Anaphylaxis is often over or undertreated with intramuscular adrenaline. Previous research in the Midlands has found that 32% of health professionals/medical students would administer intravenous adrenaline inappropriately. Our aim is to promote training in the recognition and management of anaphylaxis using an innovative technique. Method(s): We designed a 10-minute anaphylaxis education program composed of classifying symptom discs into type of reaction, management scenarios and adrenaline autoinjector (AAI) training. Small group sessions were designed to ensure social distancing in the COVID era, but also to allow hands-on training. Pre and post education scores were monitored. Following the session there was cake and debrief with participants to give the opportunity to answer any questions and provide feedback. Result(s): 131 health professionals were trained across three trusts (Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust and Shrewsbury and Telford Hospitals NHS Trust) over a period of four months. 49% (64/131) were qualified nurses, 24% (32/131) doctors, 17% (22/131) healthcare assistants and 10% (13/131) other professionals. Experience of nurses ranged from 10% (7/71) being students to 14% (10/71) having worked over 30 years. 56% (18/32) doctors were ST3 level or below. Mean pre-education and scenario score was 18 and post score was 23 indicating a 28% improvement. Mean AAI training pre score was 4, post score was 8, indicating 100% improvement. The total mean pre score was 21 and post score 30, indicating a 43% improvement (p value <0.01). The maximum overall score possible was 32. Conclusion(s): This is a novel education method developed to be short, interactive and suitable for a wide variety of professionals. Feedback has included "concise and stimulating", "fun way of learning". It is being adapted to be delivered virtually for easier access but will also be reassessed to ensure retention of information.

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Successful diagnosis of gout with use of dual energy CT in a patient presenting with atypical symptoms and negative aspiration (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):*Goel N.; *Amarasena R.

Citation:International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases; Sep 2021; vol. 24 ; p. 177

Abstract:A 42 year old Caucasian gentleman presents with acute left knee swelling, developed over 3 days without preceding trauma. He was referred to Trauma and Orthopaedics who aspirated the knee, finding no organisms or crystals. Following readmission 4 days later with the same complaint, re-aspiration again showed no crystals or organisms. MRI of the left knee showed femoral condyle oedema, initially suggesting Osteomyelitis, but on re-discussion with the radiologist seemed unlikely. The patient was started on Indomethacin and referred to Rheumatology. Despite having some symptomatic relief, he developed progressive swelling in the left calf, ankle and foot. Blood tests confirmed raised D-Dimer and rising CRP: 142 (ref range 0-5). Ultrasound Doppler of the left leg revealed no evidence of DVT, but did show pockets of fluid in the lower thigh, which were noted on previous MRI. X-rays of the knee and ankle did not show any pathological changes. Following Rheumatology review, it was postulated that he could have myofasciitis or infection. RF and CCP were found to be negative with normal complement levels and CK. Further MRI of the left leg showed progressive persistent oedema in the lateral femur. He was commenced on Intravenous flucloxacillin and diclofenac for suspected infection. Following 10 weeks of investigations and management, an MDT discussion opted for Dual Energy CT scan to look for evidence of gout. The Dual Energy CT scan showed extensive gout crystal deposition in the left knee, as well as affecting the popliteus tendon. He was commenced on Prednisolone, counselled on lifestyle factors and later started on Allopurinol that was up-titrated with bridging Colchicine, with excellent response. This case highlights the advances in Dual Energy CT scanning in helping to diagnose gout in those patients with atypical presentation and negative results on needle aspiration.

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The largest transcriptomic resource for radiotherapy-treated high-risk prostate cancer: paving the way for companion diagnostic biomarkers (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Thiruthaneeswaran N.; Bibby B.; Pereira R.; More E.; Hoskin P.; Bristow R.; Choudhury A.; West C.; Wylie J.; *Denley H.; Henry A.

Citation:Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology; Sep 2021; vol. 65 ; p. 252

Abstract:Purpose: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a valuable resource for developing and validating gene signatures for personalising treatments. TCGA samples came from patients who received heterogeneous treatments-dominated by surgery. Improving the biological precision of radiotherapy is hampered by the lack of well annotated cohorts that reflect patient populations relevant for radiation oncologists. We aimed to generate transcriptomic data from needle core biopsies for a large multicentre cohort of high-risk prostate cancer patients and use the data to validate published gene signatures. Methods and materials: A total of 478 NCCN classified high-risk patients treated from 2008-2016 were identified: 244 patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to the prostate only (BEDalpha/beta 1.5-3Gy of 120-180 Gy) and 234 patients received IMRT to the prostate and a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (BEDalpha/beta 1.5-3Gy 159-265 Gy). Androgen deprivation was given to all patients for 3-36 months. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise of >=2 ng/ml above nadir post-radiotherapy. The primary clinical end-point was 7-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Gene expression data were generated from diagnostic needle core biopsies using Affymetrix Clariom S arrays. Two (28-gene and 32 gene) published hypoxia gene signatures and a tumour radiosensitivity index (RSI) were tested for prognostic significance [1-3]. Result(s): The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.3 years. Both the 28 gene (p = 0.021) and 32-gene (p = 0.033) hypoxia signatures were prognostic for 7-year bRFS. Non-prostate hypoxia signatures were not prognostic. The bRFS for radioresistant (RSI-R) vs radiosensitive (RSI-S) was prognostic in the IMRT EBRT only cohort (p = 0.01) and not in the HDR boost cohort (p = 0.8). Conclusion(s): We generated the largest high-risk prostate radiotherapy cohort with full gene expression data and showed its value in validating published gene signatures. The RSI signature should be explored further to select patients with high-risk prostate cancer who should benefit from dose escalation with a HDR brachytherapy boost. This resource will be a valuable asset for future research generating and validating signatures for personalising radiotherapy in men with prostate cancer.

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Onyx embolisation of a small bowel arteriovenous malformation prior to resection (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):*Jones G.A.R.; *Hinwood D.; *McCloud J.; McCafferty I.

Citation:Colorectal Disease; Sep 2021; vol. 23 ; p. 126

Abstract:Small bowel arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is uncommon with an incidence of approximately 1:100,000. Nevertheless cases causing severe anaemia may necessitate surgery posing the dilemma for the surgeon at operation of exactly which portion of small bowel to resect. We present a case of a rare mid small bowel AVM definitively managed with highly selective mesenteric angiography and embolisation with Onyx immediately prior to surgical resection. Onyx is an injectable embolic fluid for which the main application is in the treatment of brain AVMs. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of its use in small bowel AVM. Being black in colour Onyx demonstrates the location and extent of the abnormal bowel segment allowing preservation of normal small bowel. Secondly it reduces the blood flow in the abnormal segment reducing bleeding. A 24 year old man was referred with severe recurrent iron deficiency anaemia since childhood having required multiple blood transfusions and iron infusions. His diagnosis of mid small bowel AVM was made by capsule endoscopy showing small bowel varices and confirmed with CT angiography. On the day of the procedure at angiography the SMA was catheterised and selective injections confirmed the mid small bowel AVM. Micro catheters were then used to selectively enter jejunal branches and embolisation was performed with Onyx and micro-coils. The patient was transferred to theatre for laparotomy. Small bowel resection was performed transfixing all pedicles and stapled anastamosis. Four months post-operatively the patient has had no further problems with anaemia.

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