Expansile Endocervical Crypt Involvement by CIN2-3 as a Risk Factor for High Grade Cytology Recurrence after Cold Coagulation Cervical Treatment (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Papoutsis D.; *Underwood M.; *Parry-Smith W.; *Panikkar J.; *Williams J.

Citation:
Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde; Sep 2020; vol. 80 (no. 9); p. 891-895

Abstract:
Introduction: To determine whether expansile endocervical crypt involvement (ECI) on pretreatment cervical punch biopsies is a risk factor for high grade cytology recurrence in women following cold coagulation for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).Materials and Methods: This was a secondary analysis on the results of an observational study of women who had a single cold coagulation cervical treatment between 2001–2011 and who were followed up for cytology recurrence. Women with a previous cervical treatment were excluded.
Results: 559 women were identified with a mean age of 28.7 ± 6.2 years. Expansile and non-expansile ECI were identified in 5.4 and 4.3% of women, respectively. The proportion of women with high grade cytology recurrence was 10% for those with expansile ECI and 2.3% for those without. Multivariate analysis showed that women with expansile ECI when compared to those without, had a four-fold greater risk for high grade cytology recurrence (HR = 4.22; 95% CI: 1.10–16.29, p = 0.036). There was no significant association found between non-expansile ECI and overall or high grade cytology recurrence. The increased biopsy depth and the CIN3 grade of pretreatment cervical punch biopsies were significantly associated with greater odds for the detection of expansile ECI. We calculated that the optimal-cut off of pretreatment cervical punch biopsy depth for the detection of expansile ECI was 4 mm (sensitivity: 73.3%; specificity: 55.1%).
Conclusions: Expansile ECI is a risk factor that increases the likelihood of high grade cytology recurrence following cold coagulation. Deeper pretreatment cervical punch biopsies need to be taken so as not to miss expansile ECI prior to ablative treatment.

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Improving our departmental reporting of thyroid cytology specimens against national guidelines: a two-cycle retrospective audit (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Halliday E.; *Ahsan S.F.; *Harrison E.; *Harrison K.; *Sansom H.

Citation:
Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology; Apr 2020 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: In the United Kingdom, guidelines from the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath) facilitate consistent and reproducible reporting and classification of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) thyroid specimens. The aim was to audit our department against RCPath guidelines to refine and improve our reporting process.
METHOD(S): Two-cycle retrospective observational audit of all patients undergoing thyroid FNAC over a two-year period (one year for each cycle). Final histology was correlated. The positive predictive value (PPV) for malignant neoplastic lesions was calculated; for Thy1, Thy1c, Thy2 and Thy2c all cases without final histology were assumed to be benign, while for Thy3a, Thy3f, Thy4 and Thy5 samples the PPV calculation was based only on those cytology samples with corresponding histology. ‘False positive’ and ‘false negative’ cases were reviewed.
RESULT(S): 288 cytology samples were included in the first cycle; 96 (33.3%) had corresponding histology. 287 samples were included in the second cycle; 119 (41.5%) had follow-up histology. The rate of non-diagnostic samples (Thy1/1c) decreased from 39.6% to 30.0%. The PPV for malignant neoplastic lesions was Thy1/1c 2.6%, Thy2/2c 0.0%, Thy3a 40.0%, Thy3f 19.4%, Thy4 75.0%, Thy5 100.0% (first cycle); Thy1/1c 4.7%, Thy2/2c 0.7%, Thy3a 13.3%, Thy3f, 7.7%, Thy4, 50.0%, Thy5 100.0% (second cycle).
CONCLUSION(S): Our department was able to reduce the rate of non-diagnostic FNAC samples and improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. Auditing local outcomes helps refine and improve the reporting process. Review of ‘false positive’ and ‘false negative’ cases helps examine potential pitfalls of cytology.

The diagnostic value of cytology in parotid Warthin’s tumors: international multicenter series (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Borsetto, Daniele; Fussey, Jonathan M; Cazzador, Diego; Smith, Joel; Ciorba, Andrea; Pelucchi, Stefano; Donà, Sara; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Tomasoni, Michele; Lombardi, Davide; Nicolai, Piero; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Colangeli, Roberta; Emanuelli, Enzo; *Osborne, Max S; *Ahsan, Syed F; Tofanelli, Margherita; Tirelli, Giancarlo; McNamara, Katherine; Liew, Leonard; *Harrison, Katherine; Fassina, Ambrogio; Sarcognato, Samantha; Sharma, Neil; Rao, Kanishka; Pracy, Paul; Nankivell, Paul

Citation:
Head & Neck; 2020; Vol 42(3) p. 522-529

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION Warthin’s tumor (WT) is a common benign salivary gland neoplasm with a negligible risk of malignant transformation. However, there is a risk of malignant tumors being misdiagnosed as WT on cytology and inappropriately managed conservatively.
METHODS Patients from nine centers in Italy and the United Kingdom undergoing parotid surgery for cytologically diagnosed WT were included in this multicenter retrospective series. Definitive histology was compared with preoperative cytological diagnoses. Surgical complications were recorded.
RESULTS A total of 496 tumors were identified. In 88.9%, the final histological diagnosis was WT. In 21 cases (4.2%) a malignant neoplasm was diagnosed, which had been incorrectly labeled as WT on cytology.
CONCLUSIONS The risk of undiagnosed malignancy should be balanced against surgical risks when considering the management of WT. Although nonsurgical management remains an appropriate option, there may be a rationale for serial clinical or radiological evaluation if surgical excision is not performed.

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Does CIN2 Have the Same Aggressive Potential As CIN3? A Secondary Analysis of High-Grade Cytology Recurrence in Women Treated with Cold-Coagulation Cervical Treatment (2017)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Papoutsis D.; *Underwood M .; *Parry-Smith W.; *Panikkar J.

Citation:
Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde; Mar 2017; vol. 77 (no. 3); p. 284-289

Abstract:
Introduction To determine whether women with CIN2 versus CIN3 on pretreatment cervical punch biopsy have less high-grade cytology recurrence following cold-coagulation cervical treatment. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of women having had cold coagulation between 2001-2011 in our colposcopy unit. Women with previous cervical treatment were excluded. Results We identified 402 women with 260 (64.7?%) cases of CIN2 and 142 (35.3?%) cases of CIN3 on pretreatment cervical punch biopsy. In the total sample, the mean age of women was 27.5 years (SD = 4.9), 75.1?% were nulliparous and 36.6?% were smokers. Referral cytology and pretreatment colposcopic appearance were high-grade in 62.7?% and 57.1?%. The mean follow-up period was 2.8 years (SD = 2.1). Women with CIN2 on pretreatment cervical biopsy when compared to those with CIN3 had less frequently high-grade referral cytology and high-grade pretreatment colposcopic appearances, and had less pretreatment cervical biopsies taken. During the follow-up period, women with CIN2 on pretreatment cervical biopsy had less high-grade cytology recurrence when compared to those women with CIN3 (1.9 vs. 5.6?%, p = 0.046). Multiple stepwise Cox regression analysis showed that women with CIN3 on pretreatment cervical biopsy had 3.21 times greater hazard for high-grade cytology recurrence (HR = 3.21, 95?% CI: 1.05-9.89; p = 0.041) in comparison with CIN2 cases. Conclusion We found that women with CIN2 on pretreatment cervical punch biopsy had less high-grade cytology recurrence following cold-coagulation treatment in comparison to those with CIN3. This finding lends support to the theory that CIN2 even though a high-grade abnormality might not have the same aggressive potential as CIN3.

Diagnostic yield of biliary brushing cytology: A single centre study (2016)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Wasimi M., Azam A.S., Abdullah P., Muzaffar S.

Citation:
Journal of Pathology, March 2016, vol. 238, Supplement 1, p.S19

Abstract:
Introduction: Biliary brushing cytology is a commonly used technique for the diagnosis of extra hepatic biliary and pancreatic malignancy. Despite a high specificity, the sensitivity remains low and variable. British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines recommend cytological analysis of brushing taken from the biliary structure to support diagnosis of malignancy in suspected individuals. We report here a single center experience of diagnostic yield of cytological specimens of biliary brushings. Objectives: (a) To determine the percentage of biliary brushing cytology cases with positive, negative, false positive and false negative results. (b) To determine the positive and negative predictive value of this test in our centre. (c) To see the correlation between cytological, radiological and clinical findings. Methodology: This is a retrospective data analysis of all biliary brushing cytology cases reported over three years from Jan 2012 to Jan 2014. The data was obtained from cytology reports and findings were correlated with the radiological diagnosis, outcome from the MDT meetings and subsequent follow up from the clinic letters. Results: A total of 34 biliary brushing cytology cases were reported between 2012 to 2014. Among them 22 were men and 12 were women. Average age was 69 years (Range 24-92 years). Out of 34, 15 cases (44%) showed presence of malignant cells and all these were true positives with underlying pancreatic and biliary malignancy. Among the remaining 19 cases, 10 cases were true negatives and 9 cases were false negatives. In our cohort, the specificity of biliary brushing cytology was 100% and sensitivity was 63%. The positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 53%. Conclusion: Biliary brushing cytology in conjunction with radiological investigation and serology is a useful technique in patients with suspected pancreato-biliary malignancy. Our results are comparable to studies done in other centres. To be re-audited.

Link to more details or full-text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/path.4705/epdf

Endocervical Crypt Involvement by CIN2-3 as a Predictor of Cytology Recurrence After Excisional Cervical Treatment. (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Papoutsis, Dimitrios, *Panikkar, Jane, *Underwood, Martyn, Blundell, Sue, *Sahu, Banchita, *Blackmore, Jill, *Reed, Nicholas

Citation:
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, Oct 2015, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 311-318

Abstract:
The primary objective was to determine whether endocervical crypt involvement (ECI) by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) on the excised cervical tissue after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) represents a predictor of cytology recurrence. Secondary objective was to identify the ability of a pretreatment cervical punch biopsy to predict cytology recurrence. This was a case series study conducted in an NHS hospital. Women with LLETZ treatment performed over a 2-year period (2010-2011) were identified through our colposcopy database. Women with previous cervical treatment, cervical cancer on cone histopathology, or missing follow-up data were excluded. A group of 526 eligible women was identified over the study period. Crypt involvement was not a predictor of recurrence in the total sample. However, in the subgroup of women with CIN2-3 on pretreatment punch biopsy and with ECI on cone specimen in comparison to those without ECI, we identified an increased risk for overall cytology recurrence (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.04-9.28; P = 0.043) and a trend for increased risk of high-grade cytology recurrence (HR, 4.62; 95% CI, 0.84-25.28; P = 0.07). A pretreatment punch biopsy showing crypt involvement by CIN2-3 was indicative of women at risk for abnormal cytology after excision. In women with CIN2-3 on pretreatment punch biopsy and ECI on excised tissue, the high-grade cytology recurrence was significantly reduced if more than 1.9 cm of cervix was removed. It seems that the presence of crypt involvement on the excised cervix in the subgroup of women with CIN2-3 on pretreatment punch biopsy is predictive of cytology recurrence.