Impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic lung disease (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):*Etel E.; *Chapman T.; *Moudgil H.; *Srinivasan K.; *Makan A.; *Crawford E.; *Ahmad N.

Citation:European Respiratory Journal 2021; 58: Suppl. 65, PA3265.

Abstract:Background: Patients with chronic lung disease especially Asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are at an increased risk of acquiring COVID-19. Hence, these patients have been asked to shield in the United Kingdom (UK) during the pandemic.
Aims: Our objective was to look at the severity of COVID and in-hospital mortality, in patients that had COPD and/or Asthma and were admitted to our rural district general hospital with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV2.
Method: We carried out a retrospective analysis from the 3rd and 4th week of January 2021, on patients in our hospital with COVID-19 and COPD and/or Asthma. The severity of COVID was defined by their need for O2+ devices (Non-invasive ventilation in the form of BiPAP, CPAP or CPAP HOOD and High flow nasal cannula). We used MS Excel for data analysis.
Results: 247 patients were in hospital, 52% males(n=129) with a mean age(SD) 73 (14.7) years. We excluded 127 who tested negative for SARS-CoV2 and then a further 92 who had tested positive for SARS-CoV2 but did not have COPD and/or Asthma.
In total, 28 patients were included in the study. 79% males(n=22). Mean age(SD) 75 (11.5) years. 29(n=8) had severe disease and needed treatment with O2+ device. Of these, 50%(n=4) died during admission. Overall unadjusted mortality was 25%(n=7) and these patients had on an average 3 comorbidities with a mean age(SD) of 80 (14) years.
Conclusion: Retrospective analysis in our cohort of COVID-19 patients’ showed 23% have underlying COPD and/or Asthma and within this group
1) 1 in 3 patients will have severe disease needing O2+ treatment
2) 1 in 4 patients will die
3) Mean Age of 80 years and ≥ 3 comorbidities will carry a poor prognosis.

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Is there an endotype to the treatable eosinophilic trait of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):*Walsh O.; *Marathe M.; *Moudgil H.; *Srinivasan K.; *Crawford E.; *Makan A.; *Ahmad, N.

Citation:European Respiratory Journal 2021; 58: Suppl. 65, PA3425.

Abstract:Introduction: There has been much interest in defining phenotypes in COPD particularly in relation to eosinophils and whether it is a treatable trait. Augusti el al (1) have suggested defining an endotype of COPD and moving away from clinical measures, when it comes to offering treatment. An endotype in eosinophilic COPD remains to be explored. Our main aim was to define an endotype for the treatable eosinophilic trait of COPD particularly focusing on the Body Mass Index (BMI), as previous reports have shown this trait may have a BMI>=25 kg/m2(2). Methods and Aims: A retrospective analysis was done reviewing the results of all COPD patients with an FEV1: FVC ratio <0.7, discussed at the local Multi-disciplinary Team meeting in 2019 and 2020. We excluded patients with Asthma and Overlap syndrome. Serum eosinophil levels over the past 3 years and BMI were obtained from the local electronic portal and MDT pro forma. We compared highest 3 year eosinophil counts (EC) in those with BMI < and >=25 kg/m2. We used MS Excel and Vassar stats for statistical calculations. <br/>Result(s): 168 patients were reviewed of which 24 patients were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, leaving 144 patients for analysis. The mean age (SD) was 57 (6.8) years. 58% (n= 84) were males. 39% (n=56) patients had BMI<25 kg/m2 (Group A) and 61% (n=88) patients had BMI>=25 kg/m2 (Group B). Mean (SD) of EC was 0.16×109/L (0.08) in Group A v Mean (SD) of EC 0.34 x109/L (0.14) in Group B [95% CI 0.14-0.21; p < 0.0001]. Our data show that patients with a BMI>=25 kg/m2 is an endotype of COPD patients who have EC>0.2 x109/L. Further research into this endotype and targeted treatments for eosinophilic COPD needs to be carried out.

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Improving understanding, care and management of tracheostomy and laryngectomy patients amongst Foundation Year (FY) doctors -A Quality Improvement Project (QIP) at a district general hospital (2021)

Type of publication:
Poster presentation

Author(s):
*Samsul Islam, *Elaine France, *Nawaid Ahmad

Citation:
International Tracheostomy Symposium, September 2021

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'There's a frog in my throat': bilateral prolapsing lung apices presenting as a neck lump (2021)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):*Ahmed R.A.; *Yang D.; *Nedham M.; *Osborne M.S.; *Ahsan S.F.

Citation:Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England; Sep 2021; vol. 103 (no. 8)

Abstract:This case report discusses an unusual presentation of a voluntarily produced neck mass, caused by the rare case of lung herniation. Lung herniation is associated with increased intrathoracic pressure that can be caused by chronic chough, straining and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation. An association with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 1 also exists. We present a case of lung herniation that was multifactorial in nature and was identified at a head and neck clinic. The female patient presented with a voluntarily expandable anterior neck mass on Valsalva manoeuvre. Computed tomography imaging with and without Valsalva manoeuvre demonstrated bilateral anterior lung herniation and findings of spinal spondylosis.

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Multidisciplinary team approach to diagnosing lymphangioleiomyomatosis (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Okoh, Magnus; Khan, Rosina; *Ahmad, Nawaid

Citation:
BMJ Case Reports; Aug 2021; vol. 14 (no. 8)

Abstract:
A 42-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the respiratory team due to shortness of breath on exertion and significant deterioration in pulmonary function tests. Her symptoms were progressively getting worse. This prompted a referral to the specialist team where further investigations were undertaken including a high-resolution CT scan followed by lung biopsy, which eventually revealed a diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Successful referral to the National LAM Centre in Nottingham provided the key therapeutic approach required to manage this rare condition. Diagnosing this rare condition was due to the multidisciplinary team approach, which involved input from the general practitioner, radiologist and
respiratory consultant. The patient has been making good progress with pharmacological management.

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Requirement of interventional treatment in a patient being conservatively managed for persistent pneumothorax over a prolonged period (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Brenac, Sophia

Citation:
BMJ case reports; Jul 2021; vol. 14 (no. 7)

Abstract:
An 85-year-old ex-smoker being managed conservatively over 2 years for a small right apical pneumothorax presented to the respiratory clinic with suddenly worsening shortness of breath and chest pain. A chest radiograph demonstrated sudden deterioration in the size of his pneumothorax. Previous CT scans had found emphysematous cystic changes within the lungs, and his new presentation warranted definitive surgical intervention with a right bullectomy and talc pleurodesis through a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery procedure. The patient made a good recovery and was discharged from clinic a year later. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up in patients with unresolved pneumothoraces due to the potential for sudden deterioration, and highlights the significance of respecting patient involvement and autonomy in the decision-making process.

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A Tidal volume calculator to improve lung protective ventilation in COVID-19 related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Blair J.; *Hester S.; Baldwin A.; Ali T.

Citation:
Intensive Care Medicine Experimental; 2020; vol. 8

Abstract:
Introduction: Routine use of lower tidal volumes (TVs) for the mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS results in decreased mortality and increases the number of days without ventilator use [1]. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with the development of ARDS as characterised by the Berlin definition [2]. A multi-centre preliminary audit was undertaken to identify whether ventilated COVID-19 related ARDS patients were receiving optimal TVs, as recommended by the Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine (FICM) and Intensive Care Society (ICS) ARDS management guidelines [3]. Objective(s): As a result of the audit, three main areas for improvement were identified. 1. To achieve accurate calculations for ideal body weight (IBW) and target TV 2. To improve documentation of IBW and target TV 3. To achieve TVs no greater than 6 ml/kg Methods: A 'tidal volume calculator' tool was developed using Microsoft Excel, which was simple, colour coded and kept on all Intensive Care Unit (ICU) computer desktops. This tool was designed to use height to calculate IBW and, if the patient's height was unavailable, could also be utilised to calculate height from ulna length. IBW was subsequently used to calculate a target TV. Staff received training on how to apply the tool. Two snapshot audits were carried out in April and May 2020 at two ICUs. The first was conducted prior to the tool's introduction with the second two weeks after its implementation. All patients receiving mechanical ventilation, except those spontaneously breathing, were included. Data was extracted from patient notes, charts and ventilator settings. Result(s): The initial audit included 14 patients. Six patients did not have an IBW documented. Three patients had documented IBWs that were 12 kg, 15 kg and 23 kg greater than the weight calculated using the tool, leading to increased tidal volume targets. Only three patients were achieving TVs of 4-6 ml/kg. Eleven patients were achieving a TV greater than 6 ml/kg, with two of these achieving a TV of greater than 8 ml/kg. The follow-up audit included ten patients. This revealed that all patients had an IBW clearly documented. Moreover, nine patients were achieving TVs within 4-6 ml/kg, with only one patient found to be achieving a TV greater than 6 ml/kg. Conclusion(s): This audit cycle revealed that initially adherence to lung protective ventilation and documentation of IBW was poor. In some instances, documented IBW was vastly different to the calculated IBW, suggesting that in these situations actual body weight may have been used. In a time when clinicians were being redeployed to support ICU, this simple tool was shown to support staff by clearly calculating and displaying IBW and target TV for reference. This directly led to improved adherence to lung protective ventilation and optimisation of patient care. Limitations include that no consideration was made for overall patient outcome, and only a snapshot of achieved TVs from ventilators were recorded; daily/weekly trends were not studied.

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Bronchiectasis in primary care (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Pickstock, Shirley

Citation:
Journal of Community Nursing; Feb 2020; vol. 34 (no. 1); p. 51-54

Abstract:
Non-cystic fibrosis (CF) (bronchiectasis) is a common chronic lung condition, which occurs due to damage to the airways leading to persistent cough, sputum production and recurrent chest infections (Hill et al, 2018). This article focuses on the adult patient and describes the pathophysiology, aetiology, investigation, and management of bronchiectasis in the primary care setting. The aim is to raise awareness of this disease, which is increasing in prevalence and to empower community nurses with information to support patients through the bronchiectasis disease trajectory.

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Patent foramen ovale causing breathlessness and platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome in an older patient (2018)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Madden, Katy; *MacKintosh, Abigail; *Mike, Nigel

Citation:
Age and Ageing; Jan 2019; vol. 48, no. 1, p.157-159

Abstract:
An 82-year-old male presented with a week's history of shortness of breath on exertion, particularly when bending to tie his shoe laces. The breathlessness worsened on standing and was relieved by lying. His oxygen saturations were noted to fluctuate based on position dropping to 82% on standing. This was suggestive of platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS), an uncommon but potentially reversible diagnosis. As the population ages we may be more likely to see patients with persisting patent foramen ovale decompensate and develop POS.