Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of COVID-19: The PAN-COVID study (2022)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Mullins E; Perry A; Banerjee J; Townson J; Grozeva D; Milton R; Kirby N; Playle R; Bourne T; Lees C; PAN-COVID Investigators (including *Millward, H.)

Citation:European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 2022 Sep; Vol. 276, pp. 161-167.

Abstract:Objective: To assess perinatal outcomes for pregnancies affected by suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.Methods: Prospective, web-based registry. Pregnant women were invited to participate if they had suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1st January 2020 and 31st March 2021 to assess the impact of infection on maternal and perinatal outcomes including miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal growth restriction, pre-term birth and transmission to the infant.Results: Between April 2020 and March 2021, the study recruited 8239 participants who had suspected or confirmed SARs-CoV-2 infection episodes in pregnancy between January 2020 and March 2021. Maternal death affected 14/8197 (0.2%) participants, 176/8187 (2.2%) of participants required ventilatory support. Pre-eclampsia affected 389/8189 (4.8%) participants, eclampsia was reported in 40/ 8024 (0.5%) of all participants. Stillbirth affected 35/8187 (0.4 %) participants. In participants delivering within 2 weeks of delivery 21/2686 (0.8 %) were affected by stillbirth compared with 8/4596 (0.2 %) delivering ≥ 2 weeks after infection (95 % CI 0.3-1.0). SGA affected 744/7696 (9.3 %) of livebirths, FGR affected 360/8175 (4.4 %) of all pregnancies. Pre-term birth occurred in 922/8066 (11.5%), the majority of these were indicated pre-term births, 220/7987 (2.8%) participants experienced spontaneous pre-term births. Early neonatal deaths affected 11/8050 livebirths. Of all neonates, 80/7993 (1.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.Conclusions: Infection was associated with indicated pre-term birth, most commonly for fetal compromise. The overall proportions of women affected by SGA and FGR were not higher than expected, however there was the proportion affected by stillbirth in participants delivering within 2 weeks of infection was significantly higher than those delivering ≥ 2 weeks after infection. We suggest that clinicians' threshold for delivery should be low if there are concerns with fetal movements or fetal heart rate monitoring in the time around infection. The proportion affected by pre-eclampsia amongst participants was not higher than would be expected, although we report a higher than expected proportion affected by eclampsia. There appears to be no effect on birthweight or congenital malformations in women affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and neonatal infection is uncommon. This study reflects a population with a range of infection severity for SARS-COV-2 in pregnancy, generalisable to whole obstetric populations.

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Neonate with persisting respiratory distress after resolution of pneumothorax (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Ray S.

Citation:
Archives of disease in childhood. Education and practice edition; Jun 2021; vol. 106 (no. 3); p. 152-154

Abstract:
A preterm baby boy was born in good condition at 31+5 weeks gestation with a birth weight of 1956 g, following a precipitous labour with no prolonged rupture of membranes and no opportunity for  dministration of antenatal steroids to mother. Following admission to the neonatal unit, he developed respiratory distress and was commenced on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 6 cm of water. At 24 hours of age, he developed a left-sided tension pneumothorax (figure 1), requiring endotracheal intubation and insertion of a chest drain. He received two doses of surfactant and was extubated onto CPAP on day 3. There was reaccumulation of the pneumothorax on day 4, which was subsequently drained. He remained self-ventilating in air in the second week of life. From day 15 to day 30, he required humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen (fractional inspired oxygen up to 0.4), in view of marked subcostal and intercostal recession, intolerance to handling and a compensated respiratory acidosis on capillary blood gases.Figure 2is the chest radiograph undertaken in the third week of life. Figure 1 Chest radiograph (supine anteroposterior) on day 1. Figure 2 Chest radiograph (supine  anteroposterior) in week 3. Questions: What is the most likely diagnosis in this case?
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) Respiratory distress syndrome Pulmonary interstitial
emphysema (PIE) Pneumatocoele Congenital diaphragmatic hernia Which of the following is not an effective option for treatment of this condition? Corticosteroid therapy Lateral decubitus with affected side down High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) Selective main bronchial intubation of contralateral lung (which is not affected) Chest physiotherapy Which of the following statements is false about this condition? Complications can include other air leak syndromes Most neonates presenting with this condition have been mechanically ventilated Diagnosis is usually made on a chest radiograph Surfactant therapy has been associated with an increase in this condition Air embolism can be a fatal complication Answers can be found on page 2.

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Midwifery Identification, Stabilisation and Transfer of the Sick Newborn (MIST) (2019)

Type of publication:
E-learning package

Author(s):
*Wendy Tyler, Alan Fenton, Scott Mountifield, Leanne Hargreaves, Claire Beattie

Citation:
e-Learning for Healthcare

Abstract:
This e-learning programme is aimed at midwifery and ambulance personnel to support the treatment plan for newborn babies who are, or have the potential to become, unwell following delivery in a community setting. The resources are designed to equip maternity and emergency teams with the knowledge required to extend care beyond the first minutes after birth, up to and including handover to the neonatal team.

The programme consists of four e-learning sessions and covers several clinical scenarios from normal variation to significant illness.

It is expected that by completing all four sessions within this programme, you will be able to:

  • Recognise normal and abnormal infant colour (anaemia and cyanosis)
  • Recognise normal and abnormal feeding patterns and abdominal signs
  • Support an infant born unexpectedly preterm
  • Support a baby born in an unexpectedly poor condition

Each session will cover identification, management including stabilisation and communication, and transfer to a neonatal unit.

This programme is the result of a collaboration between Health Education England’s e-Learning for Healthcare, The Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust and The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It was also made possible through the support of Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust, as part of a successful bid from HEE.

All the resources for this programme have been written by subject specialists and experts in this field.

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Respiratory workload and medical staffing in uk local neonatal units (LNUS) and special care units (SCUS)-time for a rethink (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Tyler W.; Fox G.F.; Fenton A.C.

Citation:
Archives of Disease in Childhood; May 2019; vol. 104

Abstract:
Introduction: The majority of UK neonatal care occurs in SCUs and LNUs with a smaller volume of highly complex care delivered by NICUs. Whilst the significant shortfall in nursing numbers nationally has been highlighted, medical staffing has received little attention. Aim To determine levels of medical staffing in UK LNUs/ SCUs, days of respiratory support provided and admissions weighing <1.5 kg. Methods Questionnaire sent to every LNU and SCU requesting details of medical tier staffing. ODNs provided the number of
respiratory care days (RCD – invasive and non-invasive mechanical respiratory support) delivered 2013-15 and numbers of admissions weighing <1.5 kg. Results 78 (86.7%) LNUs and 38 (95%) SCUs responded. 11/ 90 LNUs delivered <365 RCDs annually. Of these 9 admitted <25 infants weighing <1.5 kg. 6/40 SCUs delivered >365 RCDs annually. Significant numbers of LNUs and SCUs employed nontraining grade medical staff and ANNPs to cover rotas; neonatal CST holders or equivalent support many units (Tables 1 & 2). The 8/11 low-activity LNUs who responded provided partially separate Tier 1 staffing from paediatrics, consistent with SCU staffing recommendations only. Half of the high activity LNUs and all high activity SCUs did not achieve staffing standards for NICUs or LNUs respectively. Conclusions A wide range of activity is undertaken by UK LNUs and SCUs, with moderate overlap of workload between unit types. These data should inform potential unit redesignation as part of the current national reviews. Current medical and ANNP staffing is a major barrier to implementing change. (Table Presented).

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Evaluating the value of intrapartum fetal scalp blood sampling to predict adverse neonatal outcomes: A UK multicentre observational study (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Al Wattar, Bassel H; Lakhiani, Aarti; Sacco, Adalina; Siddharth, Aditi; Bain, Alexandra; Calvia, Alexandra; Kamran, Atiyah; Tiong, Bing; Warwick, Bethan; MacMahon, Caroline; Marcus, Diana; Long, Emma; Coyle, Gillian; Lever, Gillian Elizabeth; Michel, Gina; Gopal, Gomathy; Baig, Hana; Price, Hannah Louise; Badri, Hawra; Stevenson, Helen; Hoyte, Helene; Malik, Humaira; Edwards, Jade; Hartley, Jennifer; Hemers, Jennifer; Tamblyn, Jennifer; Dalton, John Alexander William; Frost, Jonathan; Subba, Kamana; Baxter, Kathryn; Sivakumar, Kavitha; Murphy, Kelly; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Bladon, Laura Rachel; Kasaven, Lorraine; Manning, Louisa; Prior, Mathew; Ghosh, Mausumi; Couch, Melanie; Altunel, Melis; Pearce, Melissa; Cocker, Michael; Stephanou, Michael; Jie, Michelle; Mistry, Minesh; Wahby, Mohammed Osama; Saidi, Nabila Shahid; Ramshaw, Nicola Louise; Tempest, Nicola; Parker, Nina; Tan, Phoebe L; Johnson, Racheal Louise; Harris, Rachel; Tildesley, Rachel; Ram, Ramya; Painuly, Ritu; Cuffolo, Romana; Bugeja, Roberta; Ngadze, Rose; Grainger, Rosie; Gurung, Sabitra; Mak, Sammy; Farrell, Sara; Cowey, Sarah; Neary, Sarah; Quinn, Sarah; Nijjar, Simrit Kaur; Kenyon, Sophie; Lamb, Stephanie; Tracey, Susan; Lee, Tara; Kinsella, Therese; Davidson, Trecia; Corr, Trent; Sampson, Uzo; McQueen, Victoria; *Parry-Smith, William; Castling, Zora; AB-FAB study group

Citation:
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology; Sep 2019; vol. 240 ; p. 62-67

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) as an adjunct test to cardiotocography, to predict adverse neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN A multicentre service evaluation observational study in forty-four maternity units in the UK. We collected data retrospectively on pregnant women with singleton pregnancy who received FBS in labour using a standardised data collection tool. The primary outcome was prediction of neonatal acidaemia diagnosed as umbilical cord arterial pH < 7.05, the secondary outcomes were the prediction of Apgar scores<7 at 1st and 5th minutes and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We evaluated the correlation between the last FBS blood gas before birth and the umbilical cord blood and adjusted for time intervals. We constructed 2 × 2 tables to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and generated receiver operating curves to report on the Area Under the Curve (AUC). RESULTS In total, 1422 samples were included in the analysis; pH values showed no correlation (r = 0.001, p = 0.9) in samples obtained within an hour (n = 314), or within half an hour from birth (n = 115) (r=-0.003, p = 0.9). A suboptimal FBS pH value (<7.25) had a poor sensitivity (22%) and PPV (4.9%) to predict neonatal acidaemia with high specificity (87.3%) and NPV (97.4%). Similar performance was noted to predict Apgar scores <7 at 1st (sensitivity 14.5%, specificity 87.5%, PPV 23.4%, NPV 79.6%) and 5th minute (sensitivity 20.3%, specificity 87.4%, PPV 7.6%, NPV 95.6%), and admission to NICU (sensitivity 20.3%, specificity 87.5%, PPV 13.3%, NPV 92.1%). The AUC for FBS pH to predict neonatal acidaemia was 0.59 (95%CI 0.59-0.68, p = 0.3) with similar performance to predict Apgar scores<7 at 1st minute (AUC 0.55, 95%CI 0.51-0.59, p = 0.004), 5th minute (AUC 0.55, 95%CI 0.48-0.62, p = 0.13), and admission to NICU (AUC 0.58, 95%CI 0.52-0.64, p = 0.002). Forty-one neonates had acidaemia (2.8%, 41/1422) at birth. There was no significant correlation in pH values between the FBS and the umbilical cord blood in this subgroup adjusted for sampling time intervals (r = 0.03, p = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS As an adjunct tool to cardiotocography, FBS offered limited value to predict neonatal acidaemia, low Apgar Scores and admission to NICU.

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