Effect of COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on planned cancer surgery for 15 tumour types in 61 countries: an international, prospective, cohort study (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
COVIDSurg Collaborative (includes *Blair J, *Lakhiani A, *Parry-Smith W, *Sahu B)

Citation:
The Lancet Oncology; 5th October 2021 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Background: Surgery is the main modality of cure for solid cancers and was prioritised to continue during COVID-19 outbreaks. This study aimed to identify immediate areas for system strengthening by comparing the delivery of elective cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic in periods of lockdown versus light restriction.
Methods; This international, prospective, cohort study enrolled 20 006 adult (≥18 years) patients from 466 hospitals in 61 countries with 15 cancer types, who had a decision for curative surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic and were followed up until the point of surgery or cessation of follow-up (Aug 31, 2020). Average national Oxford COVID-19 Stringency Index scores were calculated to define the government response to COVID-19 for each patient for the period they awaited surgery, and classified into light restrictions (index <20), moderate lockdowns (20–60), and full lockdowns (>60). The primary outcome was the non-operation rate (defined as the proportion of patients who did not undergo planned surgery). Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to explore the associations between lockdowns and non-operation. Intervals from diagnosis to surgery were compared across COVID-19 government response index groups. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04384926.
Findings; Of eligible patients awaiting surgery, 2003 (10·0%) of 20 006 did not receive surgery after a median follow-up of 23 weeks (IQR 16–30), all of whom had a COVID-19-related reason given for non-operation. Light restrictions were associated with a 0·6% non-operation rate (26 of 4521), moderate lockdowns with a 5·5% rate (201 of 3646; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·77–0·84; p<0·0001), and full lockdowns with a 15·0% rate (1775 of 11 827; HR 0·51, 0·50–0·53; p<0·0001). In sensitivity analyses, including adjustment for SARS-CoV-2 case notification rates, moderate lockdowns (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·80–0·88; p<0·001), and full lockdowns (0·57, 0·54–0·60; p<0·001), remained independently associated with non-operation. Surgery beyond 12 weeks from diagnosis in patients without neoadjuvant therapy increased during lockdowns (374 [9·1%] of 4521 in light restrictions, 317 [10·4%] of 3646 in moderate lockdowns, 2001 [23·8%] of 11 827 in full lockdowns), although there were no differences in resectability rates observed with longer delays.
Interpretation: Cancer surgery systems worldwide were fragile to lockdowns, with one in seven patients who were in regions with full lockdowns not undergoing planned surgery and experiencing longer preoperative delays. Although short-term oncological outcomes were not compromised in those selected for surgery, delays and non-operations might lead to long-term reductions in survival. During current and future periods of societal restriction, the resilience of elective surgery systems requires strengthening, which might include protected elective surgical pathways and long-term investment in surge capacity for acute care during public health emergencies to protect elective staff and services.

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Predictors of in-hospital mortality in Covid-19: A study across two peripheral district general hospitals in UK (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Samanta N.K.; Bandyopadhyay S.K.; *Herman D.; Chakraborty B.; *Marsh A.; *Kumaran S.; *Burnard L.; *Gnanaseelan G.; *Gibson S.; *Florence B.; Ganguly S.

Citation:
British Journal of Medical Practitioners; Jul 2021; vol. 14 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Aim-The mortality from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has remained a significant medical challenge. Internationally, patient demographics and pre-existing co-morbidities are significant determinants of mortality from COVID-19. The mortality-risk in a local population is difficult to determine. The objective of our study is to examine the risk posed by epidemiological and demographic variables, and co-morbidities in our local population. Method-A retrospective, observational study was conducted on confirmed COVID-19 patients, identified from the local microbiology database. A search of the electronic patient records was performed to collect demographic details and co-morbidities. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis of the demographic variables and co-morbidities were utilised to calculate the predictive-risk for in-hospital mortality of adult COVID-19 patients. Results-Final analysis included 263 samples. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed using age as an independent categorical predictor with two cohorts – those <60 and those >=60 years old. Age (2=17.12, p<0.001) was found to be an independent predictor of mortality – this was independent of sex (2=1.784, p<0.182). Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score was found to be a significant predictor of adverse outcome. The odds of death for patients with CCI scores 0-4 was less than half (44.8%) of those with CCI scores >=5 (p=0.005). Patients with no pre-existing medical conditions had a lower mortality-risk (OR=0.181, p=0.022) than those with known medical conditions. Pre-existing renal disease predicted a poor outcome (OR=1.996, p=0.027). The odds of death for the patients coming from their own-home was only 26% of the odds for those from a long-term care-home. Long-term care facility, advanced age (OR=1.058, p <0.001), and long-term oral steroid (OR=3.412, p=0.016) use were all associated with a poor prognosis. Conclusion People aged >=60 years, residence in a long-term care-home, pre-existing renal diseases, a high CCI score and long-term oral steroids use were associated with an increased mortality-risk.

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Upgrading of hospital discharge summary software to optimise COVID-19 documentation and safeguard infection prevention in the community (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Donati-Bourne J.; *Lo N.; *Selvan M.; *O’dair J.; Mohamed W.; Kasmani Z.

Citation:
British Journal of Medical Practitioners; Jul 2021; vol. 14 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Aims: Early review of 50 discharge summaries at Royal Shrewsbury Hospital (SATH) in April 2020 revealed only 27% documented the patient’s in-hospital COVID-19 test result and 2% outlined any recommended self isolation advice following hospital discharge. This had potential adverse implications for community infection control as well as medico-legal sequalae for the Trust were the discharged patient to spread COVID-19 to other cohabitants. The urology team worked with SATH IT to amend the existing discharge summary software, to add two tabs to make COVID-19 test result and self-isolation documentation mandatory for successful sign-off. The aim of this quality improvement project was to evaluate the impact of updating the discharge summary software on documentation accuracy related to COVID-19 on discharge paperwork.
Method(s): Following the implementation of the modified software, 50 consecutive discharge summaries for patients admitted under the urology team starting 1st October 2020 were retrospectively reviewed for documentation of COVID-19 result and self-isolation advice.
Result(s): 90% of discharge summaries included COVID-19 test result and 100% included self-isolation advice for the patient, or alternatively confirmed that no self-isolation was required.
Conclusion(s): This simple modification of an existing IT system greatly improved compliance with COVID-19 discharge summary documentation. We propose all hospitals consider adopting similar measures in the interest of infection prevention, public safety and potential medico-legal sequalae.

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COVID-19 disease and cardiac involvement-a local experience (2021)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Ahmed M.R.; *Islam S.; *Challinor E.; *Ingram T.; *Khan A.

Citation:
Heart; Jun 2021; vol. 107

Abstract:
Aims The aim of this review to assess cardiac involvement in patients with severe COVID-19 patients. We review all patients with COVID 19 disease admitted in our trust requiring transthoracic echocardiograms on their clinical indications. Background Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 disease has been found to be prognostic factor and has been related with higher mortality and morbidity. In a large series with COVID-19 those with heart disease had a fatality rate around 10.5%.1 2 Methods All adult patients who were COVID-19 positive on PCR admitted between March 2020 and February 2021, who had an echocardiogram, were identified through our local database. Their demographics, co-morbid, troponin levels and Pro NT-BNP were analysed. All echocardiograms reports which were finalised by the imaging cardiologist were included in our analysis. Results There were a total of 41 patients who had echocardiograms during their stay in the hospital with COVID-19 disease. Mean age was 70 (range 45-90) years old. There were 70% male and 30% female patients. 12% were diabetic, 49% hypertensive and 40% had previous heart disease. Pulmonary embolism diagnosed in 10% of patients by CT pulmonary angiogram. 56% of patients required high flow oxygen and 21% need mechanical ventilation. Almost all patients had troponin and CRP levels on admission. Mean troponin level 215 and mean CRP levels were 197. Mean D dimer levels 1130, and mean creatinine levels were 138. 92% had evidence of lung involvement in chest X-ray. 13% patients had new evidence of a diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. Similarly, 27% had a new diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction. Mean left ventricular diastolic dimension were 4.6 cm and systolic dimension. 2% had echo diagnosis of left ventricular thrombus echocardiographic studies. Mean PA pressure on echocardiography were 35 mmHg and mean E/A ratio was 1.2. 17% of patients were found to have pericardial effusion but none causing haemodynamic compromise. Conclusion This data suggests high incidence of right and left ventricular involvement in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. We recommend that all patients with COVID-19 disease admitted to hospital and requiring oxygen should have transthoracic echocardiograms during their admission.

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Emergency management of neck stoma patients during the coronavirus pandemic: a national nurse survey (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Senior A.; *Chan J.; Brookes K.; *Jolly K.; *Darr A.; *Ameen R.

Citation:
British Journal of Nursing; Jun 2021; vol. 30 (no. 12); p. 742-746

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Neck stoma patient care involves significant clinical complexity. Inadequate staff training, equipment provision and infrastructure have all been highlighted as causes for avoidable patient harm.
AIMS: To establish the perception of knowledge and confidence levels relating to the emergency management of neck stomas among UK nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHOD(S): A nationwide prospective electronic survey of both primary and secondary care nurses via the Royal College of Nursing and social media. FINDINGS: 402 responses were collated: 81 primary care and 321 secondary care; the majority (n=130) were band 5. Forty-nine per cent could differentiate between a laryngectomy and a tracheostomy; ENT nurses scored highest (1.56; range 0-2) on knowledge. Fifty-seven per cent could oxygenate a tracheostomy stoma correctly and 54% could oxygenate a laryngectomy stoma correctly. Sixty-five per cent cited inadequate neck stoma training and 91% felt inclusion of neck stoma training was essential within the nursing curriculum.
CONCLUSION(S): Clinical deficiencies of management identified by nurses can be attributed to a lack of confidence secondary to reduced clinical exposure and education.

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Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in COVID-19 (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Pairo-Castineira E.; Clohisey S.; Rawlik K.; Parkinson N.; Fourman M.H.; Russell C.D.; Furniss J.; Wang B.; Griffiths F.; Oosthuyzen W.; Millar J.; Shih B.; Zechner M.; Haley C.; Meikle J.; Finernan P.; Mcmaster E.; Law A.; Baillie J.K.; Paterson T.; Wackett T.; Armstrong R.; Weaver J.; Boz C.; Golightly A.; Ward M.; Mal H.; SzoorMcElhinney H.; Brown A.; Hendry R.; Stenhouse A.; Cullum L.; Law D.; Law S.; Law R.; Swets M.; Day N.; Taneski F.; Duncan E.; Kenneth Baillie J.; Lyons R.; Tenesa A.; Klaric L.; Bretherick A.D.; Richmond A.; Meynert A.; Grimes G.; Hayward C.; Ponting C.; Meynert A.M.; Wham M.; Ponting C.P.; Vitart V.; Wilson J.F.; Pasko D.; Walker S.; Kousathanas A.; Moutsianas L.; Caulfield M.; Scott R.; Bogaert D.; Gountouna E.; Porteous D.J.; Wrobel N.; Clark R.; Coutts A.; Donnelly L.; Gilchrist T.; Hafezi K.; Macgillivray L.; Maclean A.; McCafferty S.; Morrice K.; Fawkes A.; Murphy L.; Harrison D.; Rowan K.; Wu Y.; Yang Z.; Zhai R.; Zheng C.; Shen X.; Beale R.; Keating S.; Walsh T.; Docherty A.B.; Yang J.; Knight J.; Klenerman P.; Summers C.; Shankar-Hari M.; Turtle L.; Moore S.C.; Solomon T.; Turtle L.C.W.; Hardwick H.; Semple M.G.; Ho A.; Hinds C.; Horby P.; Horby P.W.; Nichol A.; Maslove D.; Ling L.; McAuley D.; Montgomery H.; Pereira A.C.; Krieger J.E.; Marques E.; Jannes C.E.; Renieri A.; Mari F.; Daga S.; Baldassarri M.; Fallerini C.; Fava F.; Valentino F.; Doddato G.; Giliberti A.; Bruttini M.; Croci S.; Meloni I.; Frullanti E.; Di Sarno L.; Tommasi A.; Palmieri M.; Tita R.; Amitrano S.; Pinto A.M.; Mencarelli M.A.; Rizzo C.L.; Dunning J.; Thwaites R.S.; Openshaw P.J.M.; Collier D.; Wood S.; Zak A.; Borra C.; Matharu M.; May P.; Alldis Z.; Mitchelmore O.; Bowles R.; Easthope A.; Bibi F.; Lancoma-Malcolm I.; Gurasashvili J.; Pheby J.; Shiel J.; Bolton M.; Patel M.; Taylor M.; Zongo O.; Ebano P.; Harding P.; Astin-Chamberlain R.; Choudhury Y.; Cox A.; Kallon D.; Burton M.; Hall R.; Blowes S.; Prime Z.; Biddle J.; Prysyazhna O.; Newman T.; Tierney C.; Kassam J.; Ostermann M.; Campos S.; Bociek A.; Lim R.; Grau N.; Jones T.O.; Whitton C.; Marotti M.; Arbane G.; Bonner S.; Hugill K.; Reid J.; Welters I.; Waugh V.; Williams K.; Shaw D.; Roman J.F.; Martinez M.L.; Johnson E.; Waite A.; Johnston B.; Hamilton D.; Mulla S.; McPhail M.; Smith J.; Barclay L.; Hope D.; McCulloch C.; McQuillan L.; Clark S.; Singleton J.; Priestley K.; Rea N.; Callaghan M.; Campbell R.; Andrew G.; Marshall L.; McKechnie S.; Hutton P.; Bashyal A.; Davidson N.; Polgarova P.; Stroud K.; Pathan N.; Elston K.; Agrawal S.; Battle C.; Newey L.; Rees T.; Harford R.; Brinkworth E.; Williams M.; Murphy C.; White I.; Croft M.; Bandla N.; Gellamucho M.; Tomlinson J.; Turner H.; Davies M.; Quinn A.; Hussain I.; Thompson C.; Parker H.; Bradley R.; Griffiths R.; Scriven J.; Nilsson A.; Bates M.; Dasgin J.; Gill J.; Puxty A.; Cathcart S.; Salutous D.; Turner L.; Duffy K.; Puxty K.; Joseph A.; Herdman-Grant R.; Simms R.; Swain A.; Naranjo A.; Crowe R.; Sollesta K.; Loveridge A.; Baptista D.; Morino E.; Davey M.; Golden D.; Jones J.; Moreno Cuesta J.; Haldeos A.; Bakthavatsalam D.; Vincent R.; Elhassan M.; Xavier K.; Ganesan A.; Purohit D.; Abdelrazik M.; Morgan J.; Akeroyd L.; Bano S.; Lawton T.; Warren D.; Bromley M.; Sellick K.; Gurr L.; Wilkinson B.; Nagarajan V.; Szedlak P.; Cupitt J.; Stoddard E.; Benham L.; Preston S.; Laha S.; Slawson N.; Bradshaw Z.; Brown J.; Caswell M.; Melling S.; Bamford P.; Faulkner M.; Cawley K.; Jeffrey H.; London E.; Sainsbury H.; Nagra I.; Nasir F.; Dunmore C.; Jones R.; Abraheem A.; Al-Moasseb M.; Girach R.; Padden G.; Egan J.; Brantwood C.; Alexander P.; Bradley-Potts J.; Allen S.; Felton T.; Manna S.; Farnell-Ward S.; Leaver S.; Queiroz J.; Maccacari E.; Dawson D.; Delgado C.C.; Saluzzio R.P.; Ezeobu O.; Ding L.; Sicat C.; Kanu R.; Durrant G.; Texeira J.; Harrison A.; Samakomva T.; Willis H.; Hopkins B.; Thrasyvoulou L.; Jackson M.; Zaki A.; Tibke C.; Bennett S.; Woodyatt W.; Kent A.; Goodwin E.; Brandwood C.; Smith L.; Rooney K.; Thomson N.; Rodden N.; Hughes E.; McGlynn D.; Clark C.; Clark P.; Abel L.; Sundaram R.; Gemmell L.; Brett M.; Hornsby J.; MacGoey P.; Price R.; Digby B.; O’Neil P.; McConnell P.; Henderson P.; Henderson S.; Sim M.; Kennedy-Hay S.; McParland C.; Rooney L.; Baxter N.; Pogson D.; Rose S.; Daly Z.; Brimfield L.; Phull M.K.; Hussain M.; Pogreban T.; Rosaroso L.; Salciute E.; Grauslyte L.; Brealey D.; Raith E.; MacCallum N.; Bercades G.; Hass I.; Smyth D.; Reyes A.; Martir G.; Clement I.D.; Webster K.; Hays C.; Gulati A.; Hodgson L.; Margarson M.; Gomez R.; Baird Y.; Thirlwall Y.; Folkes L.; Butler A.; Meadows E.; Moore S.; Raynard D.; Fox H.; Riddles L.; King K.; Kimber S.; Hobden G.; McCarthy A.; Cannons V.; Balagosa I.; Chadbourn I.; Gardner A.; Horner D.; McLaughlanv D.; Charles B.; Proudfoot N.; Marsden T.; McMorrow L.; Blackledge B.; Pendlebury J.; Harvey A.; Apetri E.; Basikolo C.; Catlow L.; Doonan R.; Knowles K.; Lee S.; Lomas D.; Lyons C.; Perez J.; Poulaka M.; Slaughter M.; Slevin K.; Thomas V.; Walker D.; Harris J.; Drummond A.; Tully R.; Dearden J.; Philbin J.; Munt S.; Rishton C.; O’Connor G.; Mulcahy M.; Dobson E.; Cuttler J.; Edward M.; Norris J.; Hanson K.; Poole A.; Rose A.; Sloan B.; Buckley S.; Brooke H.; Smithson E.; Charlesworth R.; Sandhu R.; Thirumaran M.; Wagstaff V.; Suarez J.C.; Kaliappan A.; Vertue M.; Nicholson A.; Riches J.; Solesbury A.; Kittridge L.; Forsey M.; Maloney G.; Cole J.; Davies R.; Hill H.; Thomas E.; Williams A.; Duffin D.; Player B.; Radhakrishnan J.; Gibson S.; Lyle A.; McNeela F.; Patel B.; Gummadi M.; Sloane G.; Dormand N.; Salmi S.; Farzad Z.; Cristiano D.; Liyanage K.; Thwaites V.; Varghese M.; Meredith M.; Lim W.S.; Mills G.; Willson J.; Harrington K.; Lenagh B.; Cawthron K.; Masuko S.; Raithatha A.; Bauchmuller K.; Wiles M.; Ahmad N.; Barker J.; Jackson Y.; Kibutu F.; Bird S.; Watson G.; Martin J.; Bevan E.; Brown C.W.; Trodd D.; English K.; Bell G.; Wilcox L.; Katary A.; Gopal S.; Lake V.; Harris N.; Metherell S.; Radford E.; Moore F.; Bancroft H.; Daglish J.; Sangombe M.; Carmody M.; Rhodes J.; Bellamy M.; Garg A.; Kuravi A.; Virgilio E.; Ranga P.; Butler J.; Botfield L.; Dexter C.; Fletcher J.; Shanmugasundaram P.; Hambrook G.; Burn I.; Manso K.; Thornton D.; Tebbutt J.; Penn R.; Hulme J.; Hussain S.; Maqsood Z.; Joseph S.; Colley J.; Hayes A.; Ahmed C.; Haq R.; Clamp S.; Kumar R.; Purewal M.; Baines B.; Frise M.; Jacques N.; Coles H.; Caterson J.; Rai S.G.; Brunton M.; Tilney E.; Keating L.; Walden A.; Antcliffe D.; Brett S.; Gordon A.; Templeton M.; Rojo R.; Banach D.; Arias S.S.; Fernandez Z.; Coghlan P.; Williams D.; Jardine C.; Bewley J.; Sweet K.; Grimmer L.; Johnson R.; Garland Z.; Gumbrill B.; Phillips C.; Ortiz-Ruiz de Gordoa L.; Peasgood E.; Tridente A.; Shuker K.; Greer S.; Lynch C.; Pothecary C.; Roche L.; Deacon B.; Turner K.; Singh J.; Howe G.S.; Paul P.; Gill M.; Wynter I.; Ratnam V.; Shelton S.; Naisbitt J.; Melville J.; Baruah R.; Morrison S.; McGregor A.; Parris V.; Mpelembue M.; Srikaran S.; Dennis C.; Sukha A.; Verlander M.; Holding K.; Riches K.; Downes C.; Swan C.; Rostron A.; Roy A.; Woods L.; Cornell S.; Wakinshaw F.; Creagh-Brown B.; Blackman H.; Salberg A.; Smith E.; Donlon S.; Mtuwa S.; Michalak-Glinska N.; Stone S.; Beazley C.; Pristopan V.; Nikitas N.; Lankester L.; Wells C.; Raj A.S.; Fletcher K.; Khade R.; Tsinaslanidis G.; MacMahon M.; Fowler S.; Coventry T.; Stewart R.; Wren L.; Mwaura E.; Mew L.; Scaletta D.; Williams F.; Inweregbu K.; Lancaster N.; Cunningham M.; Daniels A.; Harrison L.; Hope S.; Jones S.; Crew A.; Wray G.; Matthews J.; Crawley R.; Carter J.; Birkinshaw I.; Ingham J.; Scott Z.; Pearson H.; Howard K.; Joy R.; Roche S.; Clark M.; Purvis S.; Morrison A.; Strachan D.; Clements S.; Black K.; Parmar C.; Altabaibeh A.; Simpson K.; Mostoles L.; Gilbert K.; Ma L.; Alvaro A.; Thomas M.; Faulkner B.; Worner R.; Hayes K.; Gendall E.; Blakemore H.; Borislavova B.; Goff E.; Vuylsteke A.; Mwaura L.; Zamikula J.; Garner L.; Mitchell A.; Mepham S.; Cagova L.; Fofano A.; Holcombe H.; Praman K.; Szakmany T.; Heron A.E.; Cherian S.; Cutler S.; Roynon-Reed A.; Randell G.; Convery K.; Stammers K.; Fottrell-Gould D.; Hudig L.; Keshet-Price J.; Peters M.; O’Neill L.; Ray S.; Belfield H.; McHugh T.; Jones G.; Akinkugbe O.; Tomas A.; Abaleke E.; Beech E.; Meghari H.; Yussuf S.; Bamford A.; Hairsine B.; Dooks E.; Farquhar F.; Packham S.; Bates H.; Armstrong L.; Kaye C.; Allan A.; Medhora J.; Liew J.; Botello A.; Anderson F.; Cusack R.; Golding H.; Prager K.; Williams T.; Leggett S.; Golder K.; Male M.; Jones O.; Criste K.; Marani M.; Anumakonda V.; Amin V.; Karthik K.; Kausar R.; Anastasescu E.; Reid K.; Smith M.; Hormis A.; Walker R.; Duncan T.; Uriel A.; Ustianowski A.; T-Michael H.; Bruce M.; Connolly K.; Smith K.; Partridge R.; Griffin D.; Mupudzi M.; Muchenje N.; Martin D.; Filipe H.; Eastgate C.; Jackson C.; Gratrix A.; Foster L.; Martinson V.; Stones E.; Abernathy C.; Parkinson P.; Reed A.; Prendergast C.; Rogers P.; Woodruff M.; Shokkar R.; Kaul S.; Barron A.; Collins C.; Beavis S.; Whileman A.; Dale K.; Hawes J.; Pritchard K.; Gascoyne R.; Stevenson L.; Jha R.; Lim L.; Krishnamurthy V.; Parker R.; Turner-Bone I.; Wilding L.; Reddy A.; Whiteley S.; Wilby E.; Howcroft C.; Aspinwall A.; Charlton S.; Ogg B.; Menzies D.; Pugh R.; Allan E.; Lean R.; Davies F.; Easton J.; Qiu X.; Kumar S.; Darlington K.; Houston G.; O’Brien P.; Geary T.; Allan J.; Meikle A.; Hughes G.; Balasubramaniam M.; Latham S.; McKenna E.; Flanagan R.; Sathe S.; Davies E.; Chablani M.; Kirkby A.; Netherton K.; Archer S.; Yates B.; Ashbrook-Raby C.; Cole S.; Casey M.; Cabrelli L.; Chapman S.; Hutcheon A.; Whyte C.; Almaden-Boyle C.; Pattison N.; Cruz C.; Vochin A.; Kent H.; Thomas A.; Murdoch S.; David B.; Penacerrada M.; Lubimbi G.; Bastion V.; Wulandari R.; Lorusso R.; Valentine J.; Clarke D.; Serrano-Ruiz A.; Hierons S.; Eckbad C.; Ramos L.; Demetriou C.; Mitchard S.; White K.; White N.; Pitts S.; Branney D.; Frankham J.; Watters M.; Langton H.; Prout R.; Page V.; Varghes T.; Cowton A.; Kay A.; Potts K.; Birt M.; Kent M.; Wilkinson A.; Jude E.B.; Turner V.; Savill H.; McCormick J.; Coulding M.; Siddiqui S.; Mercer O.; Rehman H.; Potla D.; *Capps N.; *Donaldson D.; *Button H.; *Martin T.; *Hard K.; *Agasou A.; *Tonks L.; *Arden T.; *Boyle P.; *Carnahan M.; *Strickley J.; *Adams C.; *Childs D.; *Rikunenko R.; *Leigh M.; *Breekes M.; *Wilcox R.; *Bowes A.; *Tiveran H.; *Hurford F.; *Summers J.; *Carter A.; *Hussain Y.; *Ting L.; *Javaid A.; *Motherwell N.; *Moore H.; *Millward H.; *Jose S.; *Schunki N.; *Noakes A.; *Clulow C.; Sadera G.; Jacob R.; Jones C.; Blunt M.; Coton Z.; Curgenven H.; Ally S.M.; Beaumont K.; Elsaadany M.; Fernandes K.; Ali Mohamed Ali I.; Rangarajan H.; Sarathy V.; Selvanayagam S.; Vedage D.; White M.; Truman N.; Chukkambotla S.; Keith S.; Cockerill-Taylor J.; Ryan-Smith J.; Bolton R.; Springle P.; Dykes J.; Thomas J.; Khan M.; Hijazi M.T.; Massey E.; Croston G.; Reschreiter H.; Camsooksai J.; Patch S.; Jenkins S.; Humphrey C.; Wadams B.; Msiska M.; Adanini O.; Attwood B.; Parsons P.; Tatham K.; Jhanji S.; Black E.; Dela Rosa A.; Howle R.; Thomas B.; Bemand T.; Raobaikady R.; Saha R.; Staines N.; Daniel A.; Finn J.; Hutter J.; Doble P.; Shovelton C.; Pawley C.; Kannan T.; Hill M.; Combes E.; Monnery S.; Joefield T.; Popescu M.; Thankachen M.; Oblak M.; Little J.; McIvor S.; Brady A.; Whittle H.; Prady H.; Chan R.; Ahmed A.; Morris A.; Gibson C.; Gordon E.; Keenan S.; Quinn H.; Benyon S.; Marriott S.; Zitter L.; Park L.; Baines K.; Lyons M.; Holland M.; Keenan N.; Young M.; Garrioch S.; Dawson J.; Tolson M.; Scholefield B.; Bi R.; Richardson N.; Schumacher N.; Cosier T.; Millen G.; Higham A.; Turki S.; Allen L.; Crisp N.; Hazleton T.; Knight A.; Deery J.; Price C.; Turney S.; Tilbey S.; Beranova E.; Wright D.; George L.; Twiss S.; Wadd S.; Postlethwaite K.; Gondo P.; Masunda B.; Kayani A.; Hadebe B.; Whiteside J.; Clarke N.; Donnison P.; Trim F.; Leadbitter I.; Butcher D.; O’Sullivan S.; Purewal B.; Bell S.; Rivers V.; O’Leary R.; Birch J.; Collins E.; Anderson S.; Hammerton K.; Andrews E.; Burns K.; Edmond I.; Todd A.; Donnachie J.; Turner P.; Prentice L.; Symon L.; Runciman N.; Auld F.; Halkes M.; Mercer P.; Thornton L.; Debreceni G.; Wilkins J.; Crickmore V.; Subramanian G.; Marshall R.; Jennings C.; Latif M.; Bunni L.; Spivey M.; Bean S.; Burt K.; Linnett V.; Ritzema J.; Sanderson A.; McCormick W.; Bokhari M.; Kapoor R.; Loader D.; Ayers A.; Harrison W.; North J.; Belagodu Z.; Paramsothy R.; Olufuwa O.; Gherman A.; Fuller B.; Stuart C.; Kelsall O.; Davis C.; Wild L.; Wood H.; Thrush J.; Durie A.; Austin K.; Archer K.; Anderson P.; Vigurs C.; Thorpe C.; Knights E.; Boyle N.; Price A.; Kubisz-Pudelko A.; Wood D.; Lewis A.; Board S.; Pippard L.; Perry J.; Beesley K.; Rattray A.; Lee E.; Lennon L.; Douglas K.; Bell D.; Boyle R.; Glass L.; Nauman Akhtar M.; Dent K.; Potoczna D.; Pearson S.; Horsley E.; Spencer S.; Mullan D.; Skinner D.; Gaylard J.; Barber R.; Hewitt C.; Hilldrith A.; Shepardson S.; Wills M.; Jackson-Lawrence K.; Gupta A.; Timlick E.; Gorman C.; Otahal I.; Gales A.; Coetzee S.; Sell C.; Raj M.; Peiu M.; Quaid S.; Watson E.; Elliott K.; Mallinson J.; Chandler B.; Turnbull A.; Finch C.; Holl C.; Cooper J.; Evans A.; Khaliq W.; Collins A.; Gude E.T.; Love N.; van Koutrik L.; Hunt J.; Kaye D.; Fisher E.; Brayne A.; Tuckey V.; Jackson P.; Parkin J.; Tariq A.; Houlden H.; Tucci A.; Hardy J.; Moncur E.; Highgate J.; Cowley A.; Mitra A.; Stead R.; Behan T.; Burnett C.; Newton M.; Heeney E.; Pollard R.; Hatton J.; Patel A.; Kasipandian V.; Allibone S.; Genetu R.M.; O’Brien L.; Omar Z.; Perkins E.; Davies K.; Tetla D.; Shelley B.; Irvine V.; Williams S.; Williams P.; Goodsell J.; Tutton R.; Bough L.; Winter-Goodwin B.; Kitson R.; Pinnell J.; Wilson A.; Nortcliffe T.; Wood T.; Home M.; Holdroyd K.; Robinson M.; Shaw R.; Greig J.; Brady M.; Haigh A.; Matupe L.; Usher M.; Mellor S.; Dale S.; Gledhill L.; Shaw L.; Turner G.; Kelly D.; Anwar B.; Riley H.; Sturgeon H.; Ali A.; Thomis L.; Melia D.; Dance A.; Humphreys S.; Frost I.; Gopal V.; Godden J.; Holden A.; Swann S.; Smith T.; Clapham M.; Poultney U.; Harper R.; Rice P.; Reece-Anthony R.; Gurung B.; Moultrie S.; Odam M.; Mayer A.; Bellini A.; Pickard A.; Bryant J.; Roe N.; Sowter J.; Lang K.; Taylor J.; Barry P.; Hobrok M.; Tench H.; Wolf-Roberts R.; McGuinness H.; Loosley R.; Hawcutt D.; Rad L.; O’Malley L.; Saunderson P.; Seddon G.; Anderson T.; Rogers N.; Ruddy J.; Harkins M.; Beith C.; McAlpine A.; Ferguson L.; Grant P.; MacFadyen S.; McLaughlin M.; Baird T.; Rundell S.; Welsh B.; Hamill R.; Fisher F.; Gregory J.; Campbell A.; Smuts S.; Carson G.; Merson L.; Sigfrid L.; Alex B.; Bach B.; Barclay W.S.; Chand M.; Cooke G.S.; Sriskandan S.; Harrison E.M.; Norman L.; Pius R.; Drake T.M.; Fairfield C.J.; Knight S.R.; Mclean K.A.; Murphy D.; Shaw C.A.; Zambon M.; da Silva Filipe A.; Ho A.Y.W.; Palmarini M.; Robertson D.L.; Scott J.T.; Thomson E.C.; McDonald S.; Fletcher T.; Green C.A.; Hiscox J.A.; Ijaz S.; Khoo S.; Mentzer A.J.; Noursadeghi M.; Paxton W.A.; Pollakis G.; Price N.; Rambaut A.; Sancho-Shimizu V.; de Silva T.; Stuart D.; Tedder R.S.; Thompson A.A.R.; Donohue C.; Dalton J.; Girvan M.; Saviciute E.; Roberts S.; Harrison J.; Marsh L.; Connor M.; Halpin S.; Gamble C.; Leeming G.; Greenhalf W.; Shaw V.; Ganna A.; Cordioli M.; Niemi M.E.K.; Sulem P.; Sveinbjornsson G.; van Heel D.A.; Shelton J.F.; Shastri A.J.; Ye C.; Weldon C.H.; FilshteinSonmez T.; Coker D.; Symons A.; Aslibekyan S.; Auton A.; Esparza-Gordillo J.; Benetti E.; Furini S.; Montagnani F.; Emiliozzi A.; Fabbiani M.; Rossetti B.; Zanelli G.; Bargagli E.; Bergantini L.; D’Alessandro M.; Cameli P.; Bennet D.; Anedda F.; Marcantonio S.; Scolletta S.; Franchi F.; Mazzei M.A.; Guerrini S.; Conticini E.; Cantarini L.; Frediani B.; Tacconi D.; Spertilli C.; Feri M.; Donati A.; Scala R.; Guidelli L.; Spargi G.; Corridi M.; Nencioni C.; Croci L.; Caldarelli G.P.; Spagnesi M.; Piacentini P.; Bandini M.; Desanctis E.; Cappelli S.; Canaccini A.; Verzuri A.; Anemoli V.; Ognibene A.; Vaghi M.; D’Arminio Monforte A.; Merlini E.; Mondelli M.U.; Mantovani S.; Ludovisi S.; Girardis M.; Venturelli S.; Sita M.; Cossarizza A.; Antinori A.; Vergori A.; Rusconi S.; Riva A.; Siano M.; Gabrieli A.; Francisci D.; Schiaroli E.; Scotton P.G.; Andretta F.; Panese S.; Scaggiante R.; Gatti F.; Parisi S.G.; Castelli F.; Quiros-Roldan M.E.; Magro P.; Zanella I.; Della Monica M.; Piscopo C.; Capasso M.; Russo R.; Andolfo I.; Iolascon A.; Fiorentino G.; Carella M.; Castori M.; Merla G.; Aucella F.; Raggi P.; Marciano C.; Perna R.; Bassetti M.; Di Biagio A.; Sanguinetti M.; Masucci L.; Valente S.; Mandala M.; Giorli A.; Salerni L.; Zucchi P.; Parravicini P.; Menatti E.; Baratti S.; Trotta T.; Giannattasio F.; Coiro G.; Lena F.; Coviello D.A.; Mussini C.; Bosio G.; Martinelli E.; Mancarella S.; Tavecchia L.; Crotti L.; Picchiotti N.; Gori M.; Gabbi C.; Sanarico M.; Ceri S.; Pinoli P.; Raimondi F.; Biscarini F.; Stella A.

Citation:
Nature; Mar 2021; vol. 591 (no. 7848); p. 92-98

Abstract:
Host-mediated lung inflammation is present1, and drives mortality2, in the critical illness caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host genetic variants associated with critical illness may identify mechanistic targets for therapeutic development3. Here we report the results of the GenOMICC (Genetics Of Mortality In Critical Care) genome-wide association study in 2,244 critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 208 UK intensive care units. We have identified and replicated the following new genome-wide significant associations: on chromosome 12q24.13 (rs10735079, P = 1.65 x 10-8) in a gene cluster that encodes antiviral restriction enzyme activators (OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3); on chromosome 19p13.2 (rs74956615, P = 2.3 x 10-8) near the gene that encodes tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2); on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs2109069, P = 3.98 x 10-12) within the gene that encodes dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9); and on chromosome 21q22.1 (rs2236757, P = 4.99 x 10-8) in the interferon receptor gene IFNAR2. We identified potential targets for repurposing of licensed medications: using Mendelian randomization, we found evidence that low expression of IFNAR2, or high expression of TYK2, are associated with life-threatening disease; and transcriptome-wide association in lung tissue revealed that high expression of the monocyte-macrophage chemotactic receptor CCR2 is associated with severe COVID-19. Our results identify robust genetic signals relating to key host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators of inflammatory organ damage in COVID-19. Both mechanisms may be amenable to targeted treatment with existing drugs. However, large-scale randomized clinical trials will be essential before any change to clinical practice

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Reduced vitamin D levels associated with increased COVID-19 related deaths (2021)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Moudgil N.; *Oyegunle T.; *Makan A.; *Crawford E.; *Srinivasan K.S.; *Ahmad N.; *Dev D.; *Moudgil H

Citation:
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; May 2021; vol. 203 (no. 9)

Abstract:
RATIONALE: Vitamin D supports immunity and inflammation by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine release from macrophages and up-regulating the expression of anti-microbial peptides exhibiting anti-viral activity. Respiratory epithelial cells also convert inactive 25(OH)D (main circulating vitamin D) to 1,25(OH)2D3 enabling high local concentrations of this biologically active form to increase the expression of vitamin D-regulated genes. Studies continue to investigate the therapeutic effects and establish the optimal serum levels of 25(OH)D required to reduce the impact of respiratory tract infections whilst avoiding toxic hypercalcaemic high-dose ‘blind’ supplementation. Analysing patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 RNA) during the first phase of the pandemic, objectives and focus on reporting were to (1) document the population where measured vitamin D levels are readily available whilst quantifying those on supplements and (2) compare
outcome at discharge depending on most recent available vitamin D status. METHOD(S): Computer data including clinical outcomes were examined for the 516 patients (55% male) with mean age 67.4 (SD 18.3, range 0 to 100) years admitted from our semi-rural predominantly white European population to our District General Hospitals (Teaching) during the 4 months (March to June 2020) in the first phase of the COVID-19 illness in the UK. Outcomes (death during admission versus discharged alive) were analysed with SPSS comparing those with reduced versus adequate vitamin D levels. RESULT(S): Collectively (n=516), vitamin D levels (historical or updated) were available on 163 (31.5%) of patients; 17 (3.3%) undertaken during the admission. Data were skewed with median level 47 (interquartile range 24.1 to 66.9) nmol/L. 74 (14.3%) were already on vitamin D supplements and for an additional 10 (1.9%) this was initiated during the admission. Among the 163 patients, 86 (52.7%) had reduced vitamin D levels (deficient or insufficient) and these had worse outcomes with 29/86 (33.7%) having died during the admission compared with 13/74 (17.6%) of those with adequate levels: X2 (df 1, n=163) 6.02, p=.014. Table 1 categorises
distribution of values. CONCLUSION(S): Data highlight (1) less than a third of admitted COVID-19 patients have recorded vitamin D levels and of these more than half have reduced levels, (2) 14.3% are already taking vitamin D, (3) very few get
tested during the acute admission or get started on supplements, and (4) there is a statistical difference highlighting adverse outcome (death versus discharged alive) for those with reduced vitamin D levels.

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Appendicitis with concurrent COVID-19 infection in a patient during the third trimester of pregnancy (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Sanders-Davis L.J.; *Ritchie J.

Citation:
BMJ Case Reports; Jun 2021; vol. 14 (no. 6)

Abstract:
This article presents an unusual case of appendicitis in pregnancy complicated by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The novel coronavirus has affected the way medicine is practised across most parts of the world with over 160 000 000 global cases to date. Tackling management of these cases is more complex when other pathological processes are ongoing. Appendicitis is a common occurrence in pregnancy, with most obstetric centres seeing about one or two cases a year. Though maternal morbidity and mortality are relatively unimpacted by this event, fetal loss and preterm labour are common sequelae. This case involves a 35-year-old woman presenting in her third trimester with abdominal pain and who went on to be diagnosed with concurrent appendicitis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although spinal anaesthesia would be most appropriate as it avoids aerosol generation, general anaesthetic techniques were indicated due to thrombocytopenia in this case. She underwent a successful appendicectomy, although preterm delivery was indicated as a result of maternal and fetal concerns.

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the 2WW breast referrals to a district general hospital (2021)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Tokode O.; *Rastall S.; *Wilson M.

Citation:
European Journal of Surgical Oncology; May 2021; vol. 47 (no. 5)

Abstract:
Introduction: Recommendations were issued to the hospital Trusts to configure service delivery to balance cancer care with the safety of the patient and the hospital staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. The public felt the service restrictions might lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. We compared the management of 2ww breast referrals in our centre between May to July 2019 and 2020. Method(s): We triaged all referrals to face-face consultation or initial telephone consultation during the pandemic. Patients with suspicious symptoms were offered face-face consultation after the telephone triage. Result(s): Overall, breast patients’ referrals fell by 28.3% during the pandemic. 10.2% reduction was noted in May (95% CI 6.73 – 13.59, p<0.001) but a non-significant increase was recorded in June and July. Waiting time reduced by 8.43 days (95% CI -8.88 to -7.98, p< 0.0001). Breast cancer suspicion increased across all age groups in 2020 (+10.4% to + 16.2%). Breast cancer diagnosis rose by 2.0% in 2020 (95% CI 0.19 – 3.92, p=0.030). No cancer was diagnosed among under 29 years. 29.1% of the 522 patients triaged to telephone consultation were discharged, and 70.9% needed face-to-face follow-up. One patient discharged after telephone consultation was later diagnosed with breast cancer. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 pandemic did not lead to a prolonged waiting time or reduced breast cancer diagnosis, but there was an overall reduction in referrals to our breast service.

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COVID-19 and the multidisciplinary care of patients with lung cancer: an evidence-based review and commentary (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Round, Thomas; L’Esperance, Veline; Bayly, Joanne; Brain, Kate; Dallas, Lorraine; Edwards, John G; Haswell, Thomas; Hiley, Crispin; Lovell, Natasha; *McAdam, Julia; McCutchan, Grace; Nair, Arjun; Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Sage, Elizabeth K; Navani, Neal

Citation:
British Journal of Cancer; May 2021 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Delivering lung cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant and ongoing challenges. There is a lack of published COVID-19 and lung cancer evidence-based reviews, including for the whole patient pathway. We searched for COVID-19 and lung cancer publications and brought together a multidisciplinary group of stakeholders to review and comment on the evidence and challenges. A rapid review of the literature was undertaken up to 28 October 2020, producing 144 papers, with 113 full texts screened. We focused on new primary data collection (qualitative or quantitative evidence) and excluded case reports, editorials and commentaries. Following exclusions, 15 published papers were included in the review and are summarised. They included one qualitative paper and 14 quantitative studies (surveys or cohort studies), with a total of 2295 lung cancer patients data included (mean study size 153 patients; range 7-803). Review of current evidence and commentary included awareness and help-seeking; lung cancer screening; primary care assessment and referral; diagnosis and treatment in secondary care, including oncology and surgery; patient experience and palliative care. Cross-cutting themes and challenges were identified using qualitative methods for patients, healthcare professionals and service delivery, with a clear need for continued studies to guide evidence-based decision-making.

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