Radiotherapy to the prostate for men with metastatic prostate cancer in the UK and Switzerland: Long-term results from the STAMPEDE randomised controlled trial (2022)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Parker CC; James ND; Brawley CD; Clarke NW; Ali A; Amos CL; Attard G; Chowdhury S; Cook A; Cross W; Dearnaley DP; Douis H; Gilbert DC; Gilson C; Gillessen S; Hoyle A; Jones RJ; Langley RE; Malik ZI; Mason MD; Matheson D; Millman R; Rauchenberger M; Rush H; Russell JM; Sweeney H; Bahl A; Birtle A; Capaldi L; Din O; Ford D; Gale J; Henry A; Hoskin P; Kagzi M; Lydon A; O'Sullivan JM; Paisey SA; Parikh O; Pudney D; Ramani V; Robson P; *Srihari NN; Tanguay J; Parmar MKB; Sydes MR; STAMPEDE Trial Collaborative Group

Citation:
PLoS Medicine, 2022 Jun 07; Vol. 19 (6), pp. e1003998

Abstract:
Background: STAMPEDE has previously reported that radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate improved overall survival (OS) for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer with low metastatic burden, but not those with high-burden disease. In this final analysis, we report long-term findings on the primary outcome measure of OS and on the secondary outcome measures of symptomatic local events, RT toxicity events, and quality of life (QoL).Methods and Findings: Patients were randomised at secondary care sites in the United Kingdom and Switzerland between January 2013 and September 2016, with 1:1 stratified allocation: 1,029 to standard of care (SOC) and 1,032 to SOC+RT. No masking of the treatment allocation was employed. A total of 1,939 had metastatic burden classifiable, with 42% low burden and 58% high burden, balanced by treatment allocation. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses used Cox regression and flexible parametric models (FPMs), adjusted for stratification factors age, nodal involvement, the World Health Organization (WHO) performance status, regular aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and planned docetaxel use. QoL in the first 2 years on trial was assessed using prospectively collected patient responses to QLQ-30 questionnaire. Patients were followed for a median of 61.3 months. Prostate RT improved OS in patients with low, but not high, metastatic burden (respectively: 202 deaths in SOC versus 156 in SOC+RT, hazard ratio (HR) = 0·64, 95% CI 0.52, 0.79, p < 0.001; 375 SOC versus 386 SOC+RT, HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.96, 1.28, p = 0·164; interaction p < 0.001). No evidence of difference in time to symptomatic local events was found. There was no evidence of difference in Global QoL or QLQ-30 Summary Score. Long-term urinary toxicity of grade 3 or worse was reported for 10 SOC and 10 SOC+RT; long-term bowel toxicity of grade 3 or worse was reported for 15 and 11, respectively.Conclusions: Prostate RT improves OS, without detriment in QoL, in men with low-burden, newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer, indicating that it should be recommended as a SOC.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00268476, ISRCTN.com ISRCTN78818544.

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Abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone for metastatic patients starting hormone therapy: 5-year follow-up results from the STAMPEDE randomised trial (2022)

Type of publication:Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):James N.D.; Clarke N.W.; Cook A.; Ali A.; Hoyle A.P.; Attard G.; Brawley C.D.; Chowdhury S.; Cross W.R.; Dearnaley D.P.; de Bono J.S.; Montana C.D.; Gilbert D.; Gillessen S.; Gilson C.; Jones R.J.; Langley R.E.; Malik Z.I.; Matheson D.J.; Millman R.; Parker C.C.; Pugh C.; Rush H.; Russell J.M.; Berthold D.R.; Buckner M.L.; Mason M.D.; Ritchie A.W.; Birtle A.J.; Brock S.J.; Das P.; Ford D.; Gale J.; Grant W.; Gray E.K.; Hoskin P.; Khan M.M.; Manetta C.; McPhail N.J.; O'Sullivan J.M.; Parikh O.; Perna C.; Pezaro C.J.; Protheroe A.S.; Robinson A.J.; Rudman S.M.; Sheehan D.J.; *Srihari N.N.; Syndikus I.; Tanguay J.; Thomas C.W.; Vengalil S.; Wagstaff J.; Wylie J.P.; Parmar M.K.; Sydes M.R.

Citation:International Journal of Cancer, 12 Apr 2022 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:Abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone (AAP) previously demonstrated improved survival in STAMPEDE, a multi-arm, multi-stage platform trial in men starting long-term hormone therapy for prostate cancer. This long-term analysis in metastatic patients was planned for 3yrs after the first results. Standard-of-care (SOC) was androgen deprivation therapy. The comparison randomized patients 1:1 to SOC-alone with or without daily abiraterone acetate 1000mg+prednisolone 5mg (SOC+AAP), continued until disease progression. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Metastatic disease risk group was classified retrospectively using baseline CT and bone scans by central radiological review and pathology reports. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards & flexible parametric models, adjusted for baseline stratification factors. 1003 patients were contemporaneously randomized (Nov-2011–Jan-2014): median age 67yr; 94% newly-diagnosed; metastatic disease risk group: 48% high, 44% low, 8% un-assessable; median PSA 97ng/mL. At 6.1yr median follow-up, 329 SOC-alone deaths (118 low-risk, 178 high-risk) and 244 SOC+AAP deaths (75 low-risk, 145 high-risk) were reported. Adjusted HR = 0.60 (95%CI:0.50-0.71; P =0.31×10-9 ) favoured SOC+AAP, with 5-yr survival improved from 41% SOC-alone to 60% SOC+AAP. This was similar in low-risk (HR = 0.55; 95%CI:0.41-0.76) and high-risk (HR = 0.54; 95%CI:0.43-0.69) patients. Median and current maximum time on SOC+AAP was 2.4yr and 8.1yr. Toxicity at 4yr post-randomisation was similar, with 16% patients in each group reporting grade 3 or higher toxicity. A sustained and substantial improvement in overall survival of all metastatic prostate cancer patients was achieved with SOC+abiraterone acetate + prednisolone, irrespective of metastatic disease risk group.

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Observation versus screening spinal MRI and pre-emptive treatment for spinal cord compression in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer and spinal metastases in the UK (PROMPTS): an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial (2022)

Type of publication:Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):Dearnaley, David; Hinder, Victoria; Hijab, Adham; Horan, Gail; *Srihari, Narayanan; Rich, Philip; Houston, J Graeme; Henry, Ann M; Gibbs, Stephanie; Venkitaraman, Ram; Cruickshank, Clare; Hassan, Shama; Miners, Alec; Mason, Malcolm; Pedley, Ian; Payne, Heather; Brock, Susannah; Wade, Robert; Robinson, Angus; Din, Omar; Lees, Kathryn; Graham, John; Worlding, Jane; Murray, Julia; Parker, Chris; Griffin, Clare; Sohaib, Aslam; Hall, Emma; PROMPTS investigators

Citation:The Lancet. Oncology; Mar 2022 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of malignant spinal cord compression (SCC) is crucial because pretreatment neurological status is the major determinant of outcome. In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, SCC is a clinically significant cause of disease-related morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether screening for SCC with spinal MRI, and pre-emptive treatment if radiological SCC (rSCC) was detected, reduced the incidence of clinical SCC (cSCC) in asymptomatic patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and spinal metastasis. METHODS We did a parallel-group, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3, superiority trial. Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were recruited from 45 National Health Service hospitals in the UK. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with an Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, asymptomatic spinal metastasis, no previous SCC, and no spinal MRI in the past 12 months. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), using a minimisation algorithm with a random element (balancing factors were treatment centre, alkaline phosphatase [normal vs raised, with the upper limit of normal being defined at each participating laboratory], number of previous systemic treatments [first-line vs second-line or later], previous spinal treatment, and imaging of thorax and abdomen), to no MRI (control group) or screening spinal MRI (intervention group). Serious adverse events were monitored in the 24 h after screening MRI in the intervention group. Participants with screen-detected rSCC were offered pre-emptive treatment (radiotherapy or surgical decompression was recommended per treating physician's recommendation) and 6-monthly spinal MRI. All patients were followed up every 3 months, and then at month 30 and 36. The primary endpoint was time to and incidence of confirmed cSCC in the intention-to-treat population (defined as all patients randomly assigned), with the primary timepoint of interest being 1 year after randomisation. The study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN74112318, and is now complete. FINDINGS Between Feb 26, 2013, and April 25, 2017, 420 patients were randomly assigned to the control (n=210) or screening MRI (n=210) groups. Median age was 74 years (IQR 68 to 79), 222 (53%) of 420 patients had normal alkaline phosphatase, and median prostate-specific antigen concentration was 48 ng/mL (IQR 17 to 162). Screening MRI detected rSCC in 61 (31%) of 200 patients with assessable scans in the intervention group. As of data cutoff (April 23, 2020), at a median follow-up of 22 months (IQR 13 to 31), time to cSCC was not significantly improved with screening (hazard ratio 0·64 [95% CI 0·37 to 1·11]; Gray's test p=0·12). 1-year cSCC rates were 6·7% (95% CI 3·8-10·6; 14 of 210 patients) for the control group and 4·3% (2·1-7·7; nine of 210 patients) for the intervention group (difference -2·4% [95% CI -4·2 to 0·1]). Median time to cSCC was not reached in either group. No serious adverse events were reported within 24 h of screening. INTERPRETATION Despite the substantial incidence of rSCC detected in the intervention group, the rate of cSCC in both groups was low at a median of 22 months of follow-up. Routine use of screening MRI and pre-emptive treatment to prevent cSCC is not warranted in patients with asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with spinal metastasis. FUNDING Cancer Research UK.

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Abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with or without enzalutamide for high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of primary results from two randomised controlled phase 3 trials of the STAMPEDE platform protocol (2022)

Type of publication:
Systematic Review

Author(s):
Attard, Gerhardt; Murphy, Laura; Clarke, Noel W; Cross, William; Jones, Robert J; Parker, Christopher C; Gillessen, Silke; Cook, Adrian; Brawley, Chris; Amos, Claire L; Atako, Nafisah; Pugh, Cheryl; Buckner, Michelle; Chowdhury, Simon; Malik, Zafar; Russell, J Martin; Gilson, Clare; Rush, Hannah; Bowen, Jo; Lydon, Anna; Pedley, Ian; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Birtle, Alison; Gale, Joanna; *Srihari, Narayanan; Thomas, Carys; Tanguay, Jacob; Wagstaff, John; Das, Prantik; Gray, Emma; Alzoueb, Mymoona; Parikh, Omi; Robinson, Angus; Syndikus, Isabel; Wylie, James; Zarkar, Anjali; Thalmann, George; de Bono, Johann S; Dearnaley, David P; Mason, Malcolm D; Gilbert, Duncan; Langley, Ruth E; Millman, Robin; Matheson, David; Sydes, Matthew R; Brown, Louise C; Parmar, Mahesh K B; James, Nicholas D; Systemic Therapy in Advancing or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) investigators

Citation:
Lancet; Dec 2021 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer are treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for 3 years, often combined with radiotherapy. We analysed new data from two randomised controlled phase 3 trials done in a multiarm, multistage platform protocol to assess the efficacy of adding abiraterone and prednisolone alone or with enzalutamide to ADT in this patient population. METHODS These open-label, phase 3 trials were done at 113 sites in the UK and Switzerland. Eligible patients (no age restrictions) had high-risk (defined as node positive or, if node negative, having at least two of the following: tumour stage T3 or T4, Gleason sum score of 8-10, and prostate-specific antigen [PSA] concentration ≥40 ng/mL) or relapsing with high-risk features (≤12 months of total ADT with an interval of ≥12 months without treatment and PSA concentration ≥4 ng/mL with a doubling time of <6 months, or a PSA concentration ≥20 ng/mL, or nodal relapse) non-metastatic prostate cancer, and a WHO performance status of 0-2. Local radiotherapy (as per local guidelines, 74 Gy in 37 fractions to the prostate and seminal vesicles or the equivalent using hypofractionated schedules) was mandated for node negative and encouraged for node positive disease. In both trials, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a computerised algorithm, to ADT alone (control group), which could include surgery and luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, or with oral abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and oral prednisolone (5 mg daily; combination-therapy group). In the second trial with no overlapping controls, the combination-therapy group also received enzalutamide (160 mg daily orally). ADT was given for 3 years and combination therapy for 2 years, except if local radiotherapy was omitted when treatment could be delivered until progression. In this primary analysis, we used meta-analysis methods to pool events from both trials. The primary endpoint of this meta-analysis was metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, biochemical failure-free survival, progression-free survival, and toxicity and adverse events. For 90% power and a one-sided type 1 error rate set to 1·25% to detect a target hazard ratio for improvement in metastasis-free survival of 0·75, approximately 315 metastasis-free survival events in the control groups was required. Efficacy was assessed in the intention-to-treat population and safety according to the treatment started within randomised allocation. STAMPEDE is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00268476, and with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN78818544. FINDINGS Between Nov 15, 2011, and March 31, 2016, 1974 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. The first trial allocated 455 to the control group and 459 to combination therapy, and the second trial, which included enzalutamide, allocated 533 to the control group and 527 to combination therapy. Median age across all groups was 68 years (IQR 63-73) and median PSA 34 ng/ml (14·7-47); 774 (39%) of 1974 patients were node positive, and 1684 (85%) were planned to receive radiotherapy. With median follow-up of 72 months (60-84), there were 180 metastasis-free survival events in the combination-therapy groups and 306 in the control groups. Metastasis-free survival was significantly longer in the combination-therapy groups (median not reached, IQR not evaluable [NE]-NE) than in the control groups (not reached, 97-NE; hazard ratio [HR] 0·53, 95% CI 0·44-0·64, p<0·0001). 6-year metastasis-free survival was 82% (95% CI 79-85) in the combination-therapy group and 69% (66-72) in the control group. There was no evidence of a difference in metatasis-free survival when enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate were administered concurrently compared with abiraterone acetate alone (interaction HR 1·02, 0·70-1·50, p=0·91) and no evidence of between-trial heterogeneity (I2 p=0·90). Overall survival (median not reached [IQR NE-NE] in the combination-therapy groups vs not reached [103-NE] in the control groups; HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·48-0·73, p<0·0001), prostate cancer-specific survival (not reached [NE-NE] vs not reached [NE-NE]; 0·49, 0·37-0·65, p<0·0001), biochemical failure-free-survival (not reached [NE-NE] vs 86 months [83-NE]; 0·39, 0·33-0·47, p<0·0001), and progression-free-survival (not reached [NE-NE] vs not reached [103-NE]; 0·44, 0·36-0·54, p<0·0001) were also significantly longer in the combination-therapy groups than in the control groups. Adverse events grade 3 or higher during the first 24 months were, respectively, reported in 169 (37%) of 451 patients and 130 (29%) of 455 patients in the combination-therapy and control groups of the abiraterone trial, respectively, and 298 (58%) of 513 patients and 172 (32%) of 533 patients of the combination-therapy and control groups of the abiraterone and enzalutamide trial, respectively. The two most common events more frequent in the combination-therapy groups were hypertension (abiraterone trial: 23 (5%) in the combination-therapy group and six (1%) in control group; abiraterone and enzalutamide trial: 73 (14%) and eight (2%), respectively) and alanine transaminitis (abiraterone trial: 25 (6%) in the combination-therapy group and one (<1%) in control group; abiraterone and enzalutamide trial: 69 (13%) and four (1%), respectively). Seven grade 5 adverse events were reported: none in the control groups, three in the abiraterone acetate and prednisolone group (one event each of rectal adenocarcinoma, pulmonary haemorrhage, and a respiratory disorder), and four in the abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with enzalutamide group (two events each of septic shock and sudden death). INTERPRETATION Among men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer, combination therapy is associated with significantly higher rates of metastasis-free survival compared with ADT alone. Abiraterone acetate with prednisolone should be considered a new standard treatment for this population. FUNDING Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Janssen, and Astellas.

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The largest transcriptomic resource for radiotherapy-treated high-risk prostate cancer: paving the way for companion diagnostic biomarkers (2021)

Type of publication:Conference abstract

Author(s):Thiruthaneeswaran N.; Bibby B.; Pereira R.; More E.; Hoskin P.; Bristow R.; Choudhury A.; West C.; Wylie J.; *Denley H.; Henry A.

Citation:Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology; Sep 2021; vol. 65 ; p. 252

Abstract:Purpose: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a valuable resource for developing and validating gene signatures for personalising treatments. TCGA samples came from patients who received heterogeneous treatments-dominated by surgery. Improving the biological precision of radiotherapy is hampered by the lack of well annotated cohorts that reflect patient populations relevant for radiation oncologists. We aimed to generate transcriptomic data from needle core biopsies for a large multicentre cohort of high-risk prostate cancer patients and use the data to validate published gene signatures. Methods and materials: A total of 478 NCCN classified high-risk patients treated from 2008-2016 were identified: 244 patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to the prostate only (BEDalpha/beta 1.5-3Gy of 120-180 Gy) and 234 patients received IMRT to the prostate and a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (BEDalpha/beta 1.5-3Gy 159-265 Gy). Androgen deprivation was given to all patients for 3-36 months. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise of >=2 ng/ml above nadir post-radiotherapy. The primary clinical end-point was 7-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Gene expression data were generated from diagnostic needle core biopsies using Affymetrix Clariom S arrays. Two (28-gene and 32 gene) published hypoxia gene signatures and a tumour radiosensitivity index (RSI) were tested for prognostic significance [1-3]. Result(s): The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.3 years. Both the 28 gene (p = 0.021) and 32-gene (p = 0.033) hypoxia signatures were prognostic for 7-year bRFS. Non-prostate hypoxia signatures were not prognostic. The bRFS for radioresistant (RSI-R) vs radiosensitive (RSI-S) was prognostic in the IMRT EBRT only cohort (p = 0.01) and not in the HDR boost cohort (p = 0.8). Conclusion(s): We generated the largest high-risk prostate radiotherapy cohort with full gene expression data and showed its value in validating published gene signatures. The RSI signature should be explored further to select patients with high-risk prostate cancer who should benefit from dose escalation with a HDR brachytherapy boost. This resource will be a valuable asset for future research generating and validating signatures for personalising radiotherapy in men with prostate cancer.

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Evaluating the Trade-offs Men with Localised Prostate Cancer Make Between the Risks and Benefits of Treatments: The COMPARE Study (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Watson V, McCartan N, Krucien N, Abu V, Ikenwilo D, Emberton M, Ahmed HU

Study involved patients at Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust

Citation:
Journal of Urology. 2020 Aug;204(2):273-280

Abstract:
PURPOSE: COMPARE (COMparing treatment options for ProstAte cancer) aimed to evaluate and quantify the trade-offs patients make between different aspects of active surveillance and definitive therapy.
METHODS: A Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) tool was used to elicit patients' preferences for different treatment characteristics in 34 urology departments. Patients with localised prostate cancer completed the DCE within one week of being diagnosed and before they made treatment decisions. The DCE was pre-tested (N=5) and piloted (n=106) with patients. Patients chose their preferred treatment profile based on six characteristics: treatment type (active surveillance, focal therapy, radical therapy), return to normal activities, erectile function, urinary function, not needing more cancer treatment and 10-15 year cancer-specific survival. Different tools were designed for low-intermediate (n=468) and high-risk (n=166) patients. An error-components conditional logit model was used to estimate preferences and trade-offs between treatment characteristics.
RESULTS:Low-intermediate risk patients were willing to trade 6.99% absolute decrease in survival to have active surveillance over definitive therapy. They were willing to trade 0.75%, 0.46% and 0.19% absolute decrease in survival for a one-month reduction in time-to-return to normal activities, and 1% absolute improvements in urinary and sexual function, respectively. High-risk patients were willing to trade 3.10%, 1.04% and 0.41% absolute decrease in survival for a one-month reduction in time-to-return to normal activities and 1% absolute improvements in urinary and sexual function, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low-intermediate risk prostate cancer preferred active surveillance to definitive therapy. Patients of all risks were willing to trade-off cancer-specific survival for improved quality-of-life.Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Registration Identifier NCT01177865Funding:Medical Research Council (UK) (grant reference: G1002509)

Patients’ and partners’ views of care and treatment provided for metastatic castrate‐resistant prostate cancer in the UK (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Catt S, Matthews L, May S, Payne H, Mason M, Jenkins V.

Citation:
European Journal of Cancer Care. 2019 Nov;28(6):e13140.

Note:
14 of the 37 participants were recruited from the Royal Shrewsbury Hospital

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Documentations of the experiences of patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners are sparse. Views of care and treatment received for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are presented here.
METHODS: Structured interviews conducted within 14 days of a systemic therapy for mCRPC starting and 3 months later explored the following: treatment decisions, information provision, perceived benefits and harms of treatment, and effects of these on patients' and partners' lives.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients and 33 partners recruited from UK cancer centres participated. The majority of patients (46%) reported pain was their worst symptom and many wanted to discuss its management (baseline-50%; 3 months-33%). Patients and partners believed treatment would delay progression (>75%), improve wellbeing (33%), alleviate pain (≈12%) and extend life (15% patients, 36% partners). At 3 months, most men (42%) said fatigue was the worst treatment-related side effect (SE), 27% experienced unexpected SEs and 54% needed help with SEs. Most patients received SE information (85% written; 75% verbally); many additionally searched the Internet (33% patients; 55% partners). Only 54% of patients said nurse support was accessible.
CONCLUSION: Pain and other symptom management are not optimal. Increased specialist nurse provision and earlier palliative care links are needed. Dedicated clinics may be justified.

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Addition of docetaxel to hormonal therapy in low- and high-burden metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer: long-term survival results from the STAMPEDE trial (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Clarke, N W; Ali, A; Ingleby, F C; Hoyle, A; Amos, C L; Attard, G; Brawley, C D; Calvert, J; Chowdhury, S; Cook, A; Cross, W; Dearnaley, D P; Douis, H; Gilbert, D; Gillessen, S; Jones, R J; Langley, R E; MacNair, A; Malik, Z; Mason, M D; Matheson, D; Millman, R; Parker, C C; Ritchie, A W S; Rush, H; Russell, J M; Brown, J; Beesley, S; Birtle, A; Capaldi, L; Gale, J; Gibbs, S; Lydon, A; Nikapota, A; Omlin, A; O'Sullivan, J M; Parikh, O; Protheroe, A; Rudman, S; *Srihari, N N; Simms, M; Tanguay, J S; Tolan, S; Wagstaff, J; Wallace, J; Wylie, J; Zarkar, A; Sydes, M R; Parmar, M K B; James, N D

Citation:
Annals of Oncology; Dec 2019 30(12) p. 1992-2003

Abstract:
BACKGROUND STAMPEDE has previously reported that the use of upfront docetaxel improved overall survival (OS) for metastatic hormone naïve prostate cancer patients starting long-term androgen deprivation therapy. We report on long-term outcomes stratified by metastatic burden for M1 patients.
METHODS We randomly allocated patients in 2 : 1 ratio to standard-of-care (SOC; control group) or SOC + docetaxel. Metastatic disease burden was categorised using retrospectively-collected baseline staging scans where available. Analysis used Cox regression models, adjusted for stratification factors, with emphasis on restricted mean survival time where hazards were non-proportional.
RESULTS Between 05 October 2005 and 31 March 2013, 1086 M1 patients were randomised to receive SOC (n = 724) or SOC + docetaxel (n = 362). Metastatic burden was assessable for 830/1086 (76%) patients; 362 (44%) had low and 468 (56%) high metastatic burden. Median follow-up was 78.2 months. There were 494 deaths on SOC (41% more than the previous report). There was good evidence of benefit of docetaxel over SOC on OS (HR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95, P = 0.009) with no evidence of heterogeneity of docetaxel effect between metastatic burden sub-groups (interaction P = 0.827). Analysis of other outcomes found evidence of benefit for docetaxel over SOC in failure-free survival (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76, P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.59-0.81, P < 0.001) with no evidence of heterogeneity of docetaxel effect between metastatic burden sub-groups (interaction P > 0.5 in each case). There was no evidence that docetaxel resulted in late toxicity compared with SOC: after 1 year, G3-5 toxicity was reported for 28% SOC and 27% docetaxel (in patients still on follow-up at 1 year without prior progression).
CONCLUSIONS The clinically significant benefit in survival for upfront docetaxel persists at longer follow-up, with no evidence that benefit differed by metastatic burden. We advocate that upfront docetaxel is considered for metastatic hormone naïve prostate cancer patients regardless of metastatic burden.

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See Erratum - The authors regret that Fig.2F has been incorrectly titled. The correct title is “Failure-free survival high burden M1”.

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Addition of Docetaxel to First-line Long-term Hormone Therapy in Prostate Cancer (STAMPEDE): Modelling to Estimate Long-term Survival, Quality-adjusted Survival, and Cost-effectiveness (2018)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Woods B.S.; Sideris E.; Sculpher M.J.; Sydes M.R.; Gannon M.R.; Parmar M.K.B.; Millman R.; Alzouebi M.; Attard G.; Dearnaley D.P.; Birtle A.J.; Brock S.; Cathomas R.; Chakraborti P.R.; Cook A.; Cross W.R.; Gale J.; Gibbs S.; Graham J.D.; Hughes R.; Jones R.J.; Laing R.; Mason M.D.; Matheson D.; McLaren D.B.; O'Sullivan J.M.; Parikh O.; Parker C.C.; Peedell C.; Protheroe A.; Ritchie A.W.S.; Robinson A.; Russell J.M.; Simms M.S.; *Srihari N.N.; Srinivasan R.; Staffurth J.N.; Sundar S.; Thalmann G.N.; Tolan S.; Tran A.T.H.; Tsang D.; Wagstaff J.; James N.D.

Citation:
European Urology Oncology; Dec 2018; vol. 1 (no. 6); p. 449-458

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Results from large randomised controlled trials have shown that adding docetaxel to the
standard of care (SOC) for men initiating hormone therapy for prostate cancer (PC) prolongs survival for those with metastatic disease and prolongs failure-free survival for those without. To date there has been no formal assessment of whether funding docetaxel in this setting represents an appropriate use of UK National Health Service (NHS) resources.
OBJECTIVE(S): To assess whether administering docetaxel to men with PC starting long-term hormone therapy is cost-effective in a UK setting.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We modelled health outcomes and costs in the UK NHS using data collected within the STAMPEDE trial, which enrolled men with high-risk, locally advanced metastatic or recurrent PC starting first-line hormone therapy. INTERVENTION: SOC was hormone therapy for >=2 yr and radiotherapy in some patients. Docetaxel (75mg/m2) was administered alongside SOC for six three-weekly cycles. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The model generated lifetime predictions of costs, changes in survival duration, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The model predicted that docetaxel would extend survival (discounted quality-adjusted survival) by 0.89 yr (0.51) for metastatic PC and 0.78 yr (0.39) for nonmetastatic PC, and would be cost-effective in metastatic PC (ICER 5514/QALY vs SOC) and nonmetastatic PC (higher QALYs, lower costs vs SOC). Docetaxel remained cost-effective in nonmetastatic PC when the assumption of no survival advantage was modelled.
CONCLUSION(S): Docetaxel is cost-effective among patients with nonmetastatic and metastatic PC in a UK setting. Clinicians should consider whether the evidence is now sufficiently compelling to support docetaxel use in patients with nonmetastatic PC, as the opportunity to offer docetaxel at hormone therapy initiation will be missed for some patients by the time more mature survival data are available. PATIENT SUMMARY: Starting docetaxel chemotherapy alongside hormone therapy represents a good use of UK National Health Service resources for patients with prostate cancer that is high risk or has spread to other parts of the body.

Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial (2018)

Type of publication:
Randomised controlled trial

Author(s):
Parker, Christopher C; James, Nicholas D; Brawley, Christopher D; Clarke, Noel W; Hoyle, Alex P; Ali, Adnan; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Attard, Gerhardt; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William; Dearnaley, David P; Gillessen, Silke; Gilson, Clare; Jones, Robert J; Langley, Ruth E; Malik, Zafar I; Mason, Malcolm D; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Russell, J Martin; Thalmann, George N; Amos, Claire L; Alonzi, Roberto; Bahl, Amit; Birtle, Alison; Din, Omar; Douis, Hassan; Eswar, Chinnamani; Gale, Joanna; Gannon, Melissa R; Jonnada, Sai; Khaksar, Sara; Lester, Jason F; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi A; Pedley, Ian D; Pudney, Delia M; Sheehan, Denise J; *Srihari, Narayanan Nair; Tran, Anna T H; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sydes, Matthew R; Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) investigators

Citation:
Lancet, Volume 392, Issue 10162, 1–7 December 2018, Pages 2353-2366

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. METHODS We did a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. We randomly allocated patients open label in a 1:1 ratio to standard of care (control group) or standard of care and radiotherapy (radiotherapy group). Randomisation was stratified by hospital, age at randomisation, nodal involvement, WHO performance status, planned androgen deprivation therapy, planned docetaxel use (from December, 2015), and regular aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Standard of care was lifelong androgen deprivation therapy, with up front docetaxel permitted from December, 2015. Men allocated radiotherapy received either a daily (55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks) or weekly (36 Gy in six fractions over 6 weeks) schedule that was nominated before randomisation. The primary outcome was overall survival, measured as the number of deaths; this analysis had 90% power with a one-sided α of 2·5% for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·75. Secondary outcomes were failure-free survival, progression-free survival, metastatic progression-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and symptomatic local event-free survival. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models, adjusted for stratification factors. The primary outcome analysis was by intention to treat. Two prespecified subgroup analyses tested the effects of prostate radiotherapy by baseline metastatic burden and radiotherapy schedule. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number CT00268476. FINDINGS Between Jan 22, 2013, and Sept 2, 2016, 2061 men underwent randomisation, 1029 were allocated the control and 1032 radiotherapy. Allocated groups were balanced, with a median age of 68 years (IQR 63-73) and median amount of prostate-specific antigen of 97 ng/mL (33-315). 367 (18%) patients received early docetaxel. 1082 (52%) participants nominated the daily radiotherapy schedule before randomisation and 979 (48%) the weekly schedule. 819 (40%) men had a low metastatic burden, 1120 (54%) had a high metastatic burden, and the metastatic burden was unknown for 122 (6%). Radiotherapy improved failure-free survival (HR 0·76, 95% CI 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001) but not overall survival (0·92, 0·80-1·06; p=0·266). Radiotherapy was well tolerated, with 48 (5%) adverse events (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3-4) reported during radiotherapy and 37 (4%) after radiotherapy. The proportion reporting at least one severe adverse event (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or worse) was similar by treatment group in the safety population (398
[38%] with control and 380 [39%] with radiotherapy). INTERPRETATION Radiotherapy to the prostate did not improve overall survival for unselected patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. FUNDING Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Astellas, Clovis Oncology, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, and Sanofi-Aventis.

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