An Assessment of Factors That Influence Outcome Following Fixation of Periprosthetic Distal Femur Fractures Associated with Total Knee Arthroplasty (2022)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Fakoya, Keji; *Sedarous, Ramy; *Seifo, Mina; *Okoro, Tosan

Citation:
Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja. 24(3):193-199, 2022 Jun 30.

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic distal femur fractures following total knee arthroplasty (PDFFTKA) are increasingly common [1], mainly in elderly patients with significant co-morbidities [2]. Surgical management usually requires balancing prompt fixation for early mobilization with the need to consider the least physiologically demanding option [3]. The aim of this study was to assess predictors of clinical and radiological outcome in patients with PDFFTKA treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients managed for PDFFTKA over the last 21 years in the Trauma & Orthopaedics Department of the Royal Shrewsbury Hospital (RSH) was carried out. Radiological images, pre- and post-operatively, were assessed for fracture related parameters. Last known functional status was evaluated using the most recent outpatient review letters. After assessment of normality of data, evaluation of predictors of clinical and radiological outcome was made using correlation analyses. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant correlation between age, primary TKA to fracture interval, and length of intact medial cortex vs clinical outcome for the parametric variables evaluated. For non-parametric variables assessed, there was a statistically significant correlation between clinical outcome and evidence of callus formation (Spearman rho value -0.476; p=0.022). In stratifying the patients with poor and good outcome, there was no difference noted in primary TKA to fracture interval, or length of intact medial cortex (mm) between both groups. In terms of the number of comminuted fragments and anterior flange to fracture distance (mm), there was also no difference noted between the poor and good functional groups. CONCLUSIONS: 1. There was no observed correlation in pre-operative patient and fracture related variables with outcome in this population of patients with PDFFTKA. 2. Post-operative evidence of callus formation appears to be directly related to better clinical outcomes.

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Assessing the adequacy of radiographs for hip fractures (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Mulrain J.; *Omar N.; *Burston B.

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Jun 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 138

Abstract:
Aim: Radiographs for the assessment of femoral neck fractures are frequently inadequate for the visualisation of the proximal femur. A low centred radiograph of both hips offers enough information but is rarely achieved.We sought to determine the proportion of hip fractures where initial radiographs adequately visualised the femur to encompass the proposed surgical management.We also sought to find the proportion of patients who required repeat radiographs and whether this was affected by time of presentation. Method(s): A retrospective review of the radiographs of hip fractures presenting to our institution, over a three-month period was undertaken. The timings, number and adequacy of radiographs was assessed. Result(s): Radiographs of 89 patients were reviewed. Most radiographs were taken between 8am and 5pm. Radiographs of 58 patients were centred on the pelvis rather than the hips. Patients presenting overnight were more likely to have adequate radiographs. Despite a duplicate x-ray rate of 48%, most patients (55%) had inadequate visualisation of the proximal femur. The average excess radiation exposure by duplicate radiographs was 2.31mSv per patient. Conclusion(s): The majority of patients had inadequate visualisation of the fractured proximal femur on their radiographs.Many had excessive radiographs performed. This was not improved by increased staffing levels during daylight hours.

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Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors in femoral neck fracture patients - A life - and cost-saving intervention (2016)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Singh, R, Trickett, R, Meyer, Cer, Lewthwaite, S, Ford, D

Citation:
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Jul 2016, vol. 98, no. 6, p. 371-375

Abstract:
Introduction Acute gastrointestinal stress ulceration is a common and serious complication of trauma. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine receptor antagonists have been used in poly-trauma, burns and head and spinal injuries, as well as on intensive care units, for the prevention of acute gastric stress ulcers. Methods We prospectively studied the use of prophylactic PPIs in with femoral neck fracture patients, gathering data on all acute gastric ulcer complications, including coffee-ground vomiting, malena and haematemesis. We then implemented a treatment protocol in which all patients were given prophylactic PPIs, again prospectively collecting all data. Results Five hundred and fifteen patients were included. Prior to prophylactic PPI, 15% of patients developed gastric stress ulcer complications, with 3% requiring acute intervention with oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), 5% requiring transfusions and 4% experiencing surgical delays. All patients had delayed discharges. Following PPI implementation, no patients developed gastric stress ulcer complications. Conclusions Femoral neck fracture patients create a substantial workload for orthopaedic units. The increasingly elderly population often have comorbidities, and concomitantly use medications with gastrointestinal side effects. This, combined with the stress of a fracture and preoperative starvation periods increases the risk of gastric ulcers. Here, the use of prophylactic PPIs statistically reduced the incidence of gastric stress ulcers in patients with femoral neck fractures, resulting in fewer surgical delays, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced stress ulcer-related mortality.