A Brief Clinical Study: The Use of a Custom Guide for Scapula Free Flap Harvest and Mandibular Reconstruction (2022)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):*Chundoo S; *Naredla P; *Thomas S

Citation:Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 2022 Oct 01; Vol. 33 (7), pp. 2142-2145.

Abstract:Head and neck cancer can leave patients with significant defects requiring major reconstruction. The scapula free flap remains a relatively underused flap choice. This article examines the novel use of a custom guide for a scapula free flap in mandibular reconstruction following resection. A case file was created involving a consultant surgeon, KLS advisor, and technical team based in Belgium. A computed tomography scan of the mandible was sent electronically to render a 3-dimensional model. Custom cutting guides for resection and scapula graft harvest were fabricated. A custom plate for fixation was also developed. The scapula free flap was successfully placed using custom guides. In this case, the use of a custom guide enabled easier harvest, manipulation, and handling of the scapula free flap into the defect. The use of new technology and computer-generated guides represents a considerable shift forward into improving precision in complex surgical procedures and reducing intraoperative time. The use of a custom guide can provide an easier means to handle and manipulate one of the largest free flaps in surgery, the scapula free flap.

Airway management, intensive care requirement, and corticosteroid use in cervicofacial infection. A Maxillofacial Trainee Research Collaborative (MTReC) study (2022)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Exley R.; Logan G.; Kent S.; McDonald C.; Hennedige A.; Henry A.; Dawoud B.; Kulkarni R.; Kyzas P.; Morrison R.; McCaul J.; Brandsma D.S.; Cashman H.; Swain A.; Java K.; Vithlani G.; Watson M.; Christopher M.; Murray S.; Baniulyte G.; Grant J.; Wareing S.; Kawalec A.; Ng T.; Reedy N.; Tavakoli M.; Underwood C.; Gowrishankar S.; Collins T.; Davies R.; Uppal S.; Elledge R.; Shaheen S.; O'Connor R.; King H.; Tudor-Green B.; Garg M.; Wareing J.; Wicks C.; Mitchell O.; Maarouf M.; Chohan P.; *Otukoya R.; Wu E.; Farooq S.; Brewer E.; King S.; Nandra B.; Stevenson S.; Stiles E.; Davies L.; Madattigowda R.; Mohindra A.; Gilbert K.; Young D.

Citation:British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2022 Nov; Vol. 60 (9), pp. 1228-1233.

Abstract:Cervicofacial infection (CFI) is a frequently encountered presentation to Oral and Maxillofacial Departments (OMFS). The United Kingdom has recently seen cessation of all routine community dental treatment due to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and consequently an initial modification of treatment received in secondary care. Subsequent airway difficulties and the need for level 2 High Dependency Unit (HDU) or level 3 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a concern to surgeons and anaesthetists alike. The availability of skilled staff and appropriate facilities can be variable. It is imperative to understand the resource implications of CFI with respect to airway management and critical care utilisation. Adequate provision is fundamental for optimal care. A national, multicentre, trainee-led audit was carried out across 17 hospitals in the UK from May to September 2017. Information recorded included demographic features, presentation, airway management, medical and surgical treatment, and steroid administration. One thousand and two presentations (1002) were recorded. Forty-five percent were female, with a mean (range) age of 37.5 years (0-94). Regarding surgical airway management, 63.4% had a standard intubation (oral 42%, nasal 21.4%). Awake fibreoptic intubation (AFOI) was performed in 28% and surgical airway required in 0.9%. Impending airway compromise at the time of presentation was 1.7%. Following surgical incision and drainage, 96.1% of patients returned to a general ward, 2.7% to Level 3, and 1.1% to Level 2 care. The return to theatre was 2.8%, and 0.7% required reintubation. There was an association between corticosteroid administration and duration of intubation. Those who received steroids were more likely to remain intubated postoperatively (p = 0.006), require a higher level of postoperative care (p < 0.001), and require a return to theatre (p = 0.019). Postoperatively, patients who received steroids were less likely to be extubated at the close of the procedure. Intubated patients who received multiple steroid doses postoperatively were extubated with less frequency those that received a single dose. To our knowledge, this dataset is the largest ever recorded for CFI. Our results showed a high requirement for advanced airway management in this cohort. The requirement for surgical airway was low, but the significance of this situation should not be underestimated. The relatively frequent need for care at levels 2 or 3 within this cohort also placed a significant demand on already overburdened resources. Knowledge of care requirements for these patients will inform resource planning.

Masseter muscle defined sarcopenia and survival in head and neck cancer patients (2022)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*McGoldrick D.M.; *Yassin Alsabbagh A.; *Shaikh M.; *Pettit L.; *Bhatia S.K.;

Citation:
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 60(4) (pp 454-458), 2022. Date of Publication: May 2022.

Abstract:
Sarcopenia is increasingly recognised as a poor prognostic factor in older patients undergoing cancer treatment. Recently, masseter muscle cross sectional area (MMCSA) has been shown to accurately identify sarcopenic patients. We aimed to apply this novel technique to a head and neck cohort to identify any potential relationship with survival. A retrospective review was undertaken of patients over 65 years, diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and treated with curative intent in our unit between October 2009 and October 2017. MMCSA was measured on staging CT scans using a validated technique. Patients were categorised into tertiles and also high and low MMCSA groups based on gender based tertile and mean MMCSA values. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A total of 111 patients were included in the study. The average age was 74 years (range 65-92 years) and 69% were male. The majority of patients had malignancies of the oral cavity (41%) or larynx (37%). The overall survival was 46% with a follow-up between 24 and 60 months. MMCSA was significantly associated with worse overall survival when defined using a gender based mean cut-off point (p=0.038) or tertile groupings (p=0.026), but did not maintain significance in multivariable analysis. Masseter muscle defined sarcopenia was associated with worse survival in our cohort in univariate analysis. Opportunistic measurement of this new factor on staging scans may aid prognostication and management in older patients.

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Oral and maxillofacial surgery patient satisfaction with telephone consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Horgan T.J.; *Alsabbagh A.Y.; *McGoldrick D.M.; *Bhatia S.K.; *Messahel A.

Citation:
The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery; Apr 2021; vol. 59 (no. 3); p. 335-340

Abstract:
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic most oral and maxillofacial surgical (OMFS) units have moved to conducting patient consultations over the telephone. The aim of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction with telephone consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective survey was conducted of OMFS patients at our hospital who had telephone consultations between 1 April – 8 June 2020. The survey was conducted by independent interviewers and used the Generic Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (G-MISS) along with a previously published additional questionnaire. Variables recorded included age, gender, theme of consultation, grade of clinician, and type of consultation. Statistical analysis was performed to assess for any differences between patient groups. The records of 150 consecutive patients were reviewed and 135 met inclusion criteria. A total of 109 patients completed the survey giving a response rate of 80.74%. The total G-MISS score for satisfaction was high, which indicates a high level of satisfaction among all patients. We found no statistical difference in satisfaction when comparing patients in terms of gender, age, theme of consultation, or level of clinician. A significant difference was found in compliance levels between review and new patients, with review patients demonstrating higher compliance levels (p=0.004). Overall, 83.48% of patients said they would be willing to have a telephone consultation in future. The majority of patients in this study reported high levels of satisfaction with telephone consultations. New patients reported lower levels of compliance which may suggest this type of consultation is less suited to telephone consultation.

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Use of recombinant parathyroid hormone in treatment of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis leading to spontaneous healing (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Chundoo S.; *Pilkington R.; *Bhatia S.; *Garton M.

Citation:
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Dec 2019; vol. 57 (no. 10)

Abstract:
Introduction: Case presentation of 61 year old female patient who developed BRONJ (bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw) and a pathological triple fracture of the anterior mandible. She had underlying vitamin D deficiency and secondary hypoparathyroidism. She also suffers from anca positive rheumatoid arthritis and is under the active care of rheumatology.
Method(s): Patient was treated with conservative measures which failed to give a good quality of life outcome. Under special license, with involvement from rheumatology, the patient was started on monthly injections of recombinant parathyroid hormone (teriparatide).
Result(s): Over 12-18 months, the serial radiographs reveal bony union of all fracture sites. Patient now has good quality of life and patient is back on disease modifying drugs to control their active rheumatoid arthritis.
Conclusions/Clinical Relevance: Novel approach to using teriparatide for patients with end-stage BRONJ. License of the drug as well as current NICE guidelines for its use and patient specific requirements such as fragility fracture risks age and DEXA scores are also discussed. The action of the drug on osteoblastic formation and bone turnover is discussed. This will help practitioners have another agent to add to their treatment options in treating the effects of BRONJ.

A technical note describing the use of a carotid artery bypass graft in the management of head and neck cancer with carotid artery involvement and review of literature (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Hamps C.; *Pilkington R.; *Merriman C.; *Thomas S.; *Bhatia S.

Citation:
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Dec 2019; vol. 57 (no. 10)

Abstract:
Introduction Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) refers to rupture of the carotid artery and is an uncommon but often catastrophic complication of head and neck cancer when arterial wall integrity is compromised,
particularly where surgical procedures and radiotherapy are involved. Rupture occurs most commonly in the common carotid artery in proximity to the furcation, often within 10-40 days post surgery. Methods We present the use of a great saphenous vein carotid artery bypass graft in the management of a 47-year-old woman with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (T2 N1 M0 RO V1) utilizing the Pruitt F3 carotid shunt system to minimize cerebral perfusion compromise. We explore pre and post-operative surgical considerations including suggested graft-monitoring protocols. Results The body of evidence supporting the use of carotid bypass grafts is limited. Despite data paucity, case series are available demonstrating variable mortality. A systematic review of PubMed was conducted revealing three English language case series. One series reported a 2-year survival of 82% with carotid sacrifice and autogenous venous graft where distant metastatic disease is absent. 96% of patients experienced no neurologic sequela whilst 3.9% suffered CVA post-operatively. Our own patient remains free of neurologic symptoms and graft patency has been confirmed at 3 months. Clinical Relevance Tumour resection involving in the carotid artery presents an array of surgical management possibilities including tumour shaving, artery ligation or resection. The long-term survival of carotid bypass graft is unknown and reported complications vary, it remains a promising technique in the prevention of carotid blowout syndrome.

The change in presentation and treatment of dental abscess in ten years at Telford Hospital (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Wu E.

Citation:
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Dec 2019; vol. 57 (no. 10)

Abstract:
Background A dental infection often requires simple treatment but an abscess can turn into a life threatening condition. In the UK in April 2006 a new dental contract was introduced, it changed the renumeration tariffs from pay per item to a 3 tier banding payment system in the hope of shifting the balance to prevention rather than treatment. Aims The aim of this project is to study the change in incidence and severity of dental infections presenting to Telford Hospital Emergency Department (ED), the treatment required plus the potential implications on Maxillofacial Services. Methods Data was collected from 2006 and 2016. Using the ED database codes for 'soft tissue infection/abscess or Facio-maxillary conditions' patients were identified. Only those notes stating a clear dental cause were included. Results The median age range in 2006 and 2016 was 30years old. In 2016, 20% of patients had been commenced on Antibiotics (most commonly amoxicillin) compared to only 3% in 2006. The number of patients presenting to ED doubled in 2016 and the procedures (LA/ GA) more than quadrupled resulting in a rise in inpatient stay from 1 to 11 days in total. The increase in GA could indicate increased severity of the abscess. Conclusions It would appear that the work load managed by Maxillofacial Surgeons has increased. There has also been an increase in incidence and severity of dental infections.  Whether this is secondary to deterioration in dental health or unwillingness by the public to pay to for dental health care is unclear.

Temporal artery biopsy harvesting length audit, patient satisfaction with post op management. A guide for clinical commissioning group planning (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Pilkington R.; *Chundoo S.; *Rollings L.; *Messahel A.; *Thomas S.; *Bhatia S.

Citation:
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Dec 2019; vol. 57 (no. 10)

Abstract:
Introduction: Giant cell or temporal arteritis (GCA) is a vasculitis mainly affecting patients over 50yrs. Diagnosis is facilitated by a temporal artery biopsy (TAB). Due to the increased risk loss of visual loss, patients are started on high dose steroids to reduce this risk. However, a timely diagnosis with the aid from a TAB can help steer the patient into a more medically directed pathway of an appropriate reduction or prolonged use of steroids. We used British Society of Rheumatology (BSR) guidelines to audit our harvest length (recommend > 20 mm) and a telephone questionnaire to follow up patients. Method Retrospective audit over 2.5 years, 146 patients underwent a TAB performed at the Princess Royal and Royal Shrewsbury Hospital.
Results: Male:female (30:70), average age 69yrs.We had a 99.3% TAB harvest of the artery and harvest length > 10 mm was 100% and > 20 mm was 87%. Mean length 24 mm. A positive diagnosis of GCA was made from 24.6% of the TAB. A telephone questionnaire was conducted with a 44% response. 11% reported some postoperative bleeding and 4% some discomfort from the sutures. 0% reported any ongoing problems from the surgical site or concerns from the scar. Clinical relevance In our unit we provide a comprehensive service to a large geographical region. In line with Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG) this audit shows that we are providing a quality service to the practitioners who refer their patients for this treatment provision. Hopefully this audit can be used to further improve our service.

Reconstruction of the radial forearm free flap donor site with an acellular dermal regenerative matrix "Integra" on Fitzpatrick Type 1 skin (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Pilkington R.; *Saggu M.; *Thomas S.; *Bhatia S.

Citation:
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Dec 2019; vol. 57 (no. 10)

Abstract:
Introduction: The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is still one of the most commonly used free flaps in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The flap provides a thin flap making intra-oral repair less bulky however, one of the drawbacks to this flap is the donor site morbidity. We report the use of an acellular dermal regenerative matrix material (Integra, Integra Life Sciences, Plainsboro, NJ) to provide a substrate for wound coverage. Method: Our novel approach is used to minimise the donor site scarring and is used to treat a fit and healthy right handed 37-year-old man who presented with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from minor salivary glands in the hard palate. He required resection with reconstruction with a left RFFF. He has Type 1 Fitzpatrick skin and is prone to severe keloid scarring and is not keen to have a skin graft taken to cause further scarring.
Results: We review the types of techniques to close the RFFF donor site. This is the first case using integra to close this site and show the healing stages involved. Clinical relevance This case reveals that the use of the Integra has resulted in a neodermis which then allowed ingress of the surrounding epidermis to fully cover the donor site. It has alleviated the need to take a split skin or full thickness graft which would have added more keloid scarring for the patient.