Is pain properly managed in children presenting with fractures? A retrospective audit of children presenting to the emergency department (2020)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Rafie A

Citation:
British Journal of Surgery; Jun 2020; vol. 107 ; p. 68

Abstract:
Aim: Pain is a common problem in the surgical field, especially when treating children – but how well is it managed, and documented? In this audit we aim to answer a few key questions. Is analgesia administered prehospital? Are pain scores recorded, and re-evaluated? And is analgesia offered and/or administered in the Emergency Department(ED)? Method: A retrospective audit was carried out between two hospitals on 100 patients aged between 5-15 presenting to the ED. A search was carried out using SNOMEDand ICD10 codes, to find patients presenting with fractures – and the ED CAS cards reviewed.
Result(s): The data showed poor compliance between both hospitals – pain scores were seldom recorded, or reevaluated; and in 58% of cases analgesia was not offered and no reason was documented. 28% of patients were given pre-hospital analgesia and only 2% of patients had an analgesia review.
Conclusion(s): Adequate pain management is vital, especially in children – as they often don’t self-report pain. The study found that the worst compliance was in documentation of pain scores, and their re-evaluation. However, more concerningly analgesia was only administered in 19% of cases – and in many cases there was no documentation as to why it wasn’t offered.

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Supratentorial vs infratentorial posterior calvarial distraction osteogenesis for the increase of ICV in children with syndromic or multi-suture craniosynostosis: a retrospective cohort study (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Sharman J.; Rodrigues D.; McGuirk S.; *Panikkar M.; Nishikawa H.; Dover S.; Evans M.; White N.

Citation:
Child’s Nervous System; 2021 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
Purpose: Craniosynostosis is the premature and pathological fusion of calvarial sutures. One modality of surgical treatment of syndromic craniosynostosis is posterior calvarial distraction (PCD). This can be either supratentorial or infratentorial. Currently, supratentorial PCD may be regarded as safer but produces a smaller increase in calvarial volume compared to infratentorial PCD. This study quantifies and compares the effectiveness of supratentorial and infratentorial PCD to help guide surgical decision-making. Method(s): The CT and/or MRI scans of 47 cases of craniosynostosis who underwent PCD from the Birmingham Children’s Hospital (BCH) were converted to sagittal series multi-planar reformatted (MPR) scans for the manual calculation of ICV. The 47 cases were classified as having undergone either supratentorial or infratentorial PCD using lateral plain film radiographs, with 28 and 32 pairs of pre- and post-operative CT/MRI scans reviewed respectively. Result(s): A statistically significant difference between supratentorial and infratentorial PCD was observed for the increase in supratentorial volume (STV) (P = 0.0458) and total intracranial volume (TICV) (P = 0.0437), but not for the increase in infratentorial volume (ITV) (P = 0.0697). The relationship for each volume trended towards convergence but was not achieved before the physical limit of 30 mm distraction had been reached. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for agreement of MRI and CT scans for STV, ITV and total ICV were 0.852, 0.864 and 0.854 respectively. Conclusion(s): Our evidence suggests that supratentorial PCD is more effective for increasing ICV in a clinical setting. CT and MRI imaging modalities are acceptably clinically interchangeable for calculating ICV in craniosynostosis.

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Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS): providing resuscitative care (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Kempsell-Smith M.; *Meenan S.

Citation:
Nursing children and young people; 2020 Sep 10;32(5):13-16

Abstract:
Little is understood about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, there is limited literature available and few case studies exploring the observations of colleagues involved in managing patients with COVID-19. Children represent a small sample of the confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the UK but the reasons for this are relatively unknown. Most children are asymptomatic or exhibit mild symptoms from COVID-19 infection. However, a small number have been identified who develop a significant systemic inflammatory response, referred to as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). PIMS-TS involvespersistent fever and organ dysfunction. PIMS-TS can also share clinical features with other conditions including toxic shock syndrome, septic shock and Kawasaki disease. This article presents a case study to explore the resuscitative care provided to a ten-year-old child with suspected PIMS-TS.

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Current management of children and young people with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia – HEART UK statement of care (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Ramaswami U.; Humphries S.E.; Priestley-Barnham L.; Green P.; Wald D.S.; *Capps N.; Anderson M.; Dale P.; Morris A.A.

Citation:
Atherosclerosis; Nov 2019; vol. 290 ; p. 1-8 [epub ahead of print]

Abstract:
This consensus statement on the management of children and young people with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) addresses management of paediatric FH in the UK, identified by cascade testing when a parent is diagnosed with FH and for those diagnosed following incidental lipid tests. Lifestyle and dietary advice appropriate for children with FH; suggested low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets and the most appropriate lipid-lowering therapies to achieve these are discussed in this statement of care. Based on the population prevalence of FH as ~1/250 and the UK paediatric population, there are approximately 50,000 FH children under 18 years. Currently only about 550 of these children and young people have been identified and are under paediatric care.

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Cancelled! Cancelled! An audit on cancellation of paediatric surgical cases on the day of surgery in a district general hospital (2019)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
Singh M.; *Annadurai S.

Citation:
Anaesthesia; Jul 2019; vol. 74 ; p. 90

Abstract:
Surgical case cancellation has significant impacts on operating theatre efficiency and the UK loses a substantial amount of money on these cases [1]. A recent prospective study over a 1-week period in an NHS hospital suggested a adult surgical case cancellation rate between 10% and 14% and the majority of these cases were due to non-clinical reasons [2]. It is distressing for the patient and affects outcomes. We undertook an audit regarding cancellation of paediatric surgical cases on the day of surgery at a district general hospital (DGH) to look for various reasons for the cancellations and to evaluate the services. Methods We collected prospective data from the hospital’s database regarding cancelled paediatric surgical procedures over a 6-month period from February 2018 to July 2018 in our DGH. Results We found that a total of 70 paediatric surgical cases were cancelled on the day of surgery out of total of 653 paediatric surgical cases, which is an approximately 10% cancellation rate over the 6-month period with a range of cancellations from 7% in May and June to 18% in February. We observed that 76% of the cancellations were of elective cases. We subdivided the reasons for cancellations into organisational, patient, surgical and anaesthetic factors. Among the organisational factors, 23% of cancellations were due to ‘unavailable beds’. We observed that 11% of cancellations occurred because patients ‘did not attend’, 7% of patients were reported as ‘sick’ and 3% of patients did not follow preoperative fasting instructions. Surgeons cancelled 15% of cases for the reason ‘procedure no longer required’, whereas anaesthetist ‘sickness’ was the reason for cancellation in 9% of cases. Discussion Cancellations prolong the waiting list and worsens patient experiences and clinical outcomes. In our audit, we found that the main reasons for cancellations were non-clinical. To improve the surgical reasons for cancellation, we suggest timely rereview of the need for surgery. Although staff allocation is looked at regularly, some cases were cancelled due to the unavailability of staff, which can be improved on. We discussed the idea of seasonal planning of cases. We plan to re-audit with the aim of investigating cancellation rates in elective cases over a 1-year period to also review the cancellation rate during the winter months.

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Parent Experiences with Paediatric Allergy Pathways in the West Midlands: A Qualitative study. (2019)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Diwakar, Lavanya; Cummins, Carole; Hackett, Scott; *Rees, Martyn; Charles, Lynette; Kerrigan, Caroline; Creed, Helen; Roberts, Tracy

Citation:
Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Jan 2019 Volume49, Issue3, Pages 357-365

Abstract:
BACKGROUND The prevalence, severity and complexity of allergic diseases has been increasing steadily in the UK over the last few decades. Primary care physicians are often not adequately trained in allergy management whilst specialist services for allergy are scarce and heterogeneous. Services, therefore, have been unable to meet the rising demand. This is particularly true for paediatric allergy services in the UK. OBJECTIVE To understand parent experiences with paediatric allergy pathways in the West Midlands (WM) region of the UK. METHODS Parents of children aged between 0-16 years from the WM region were recruited opportunistically until thematic saturation was achieved. 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed on NVivo software using the framework method. Themes were identified from the transcripts as well as from existing literature. RESULTS Parents highlighted numerous issues related to allergy services in the region including difficulties with being taken seriously by their physicians, problems with accessing healthcare and issues with information and the need for additional supportive care for allergies. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary care for children with allergies in the West Midlands is disparate. Parents experience difficulties in accessing primary and secondary care services and also obtaining timely and appropriate information regarding their child’s allergies. Most parents were happy to be reviewed by either specialist nurses or by consultants in the hospital. Improving accessibility and availability of reliable information as well as provision of additional services (such as psychologists and dietetics) were highlighted by parents as being important to allergy services in the region. These findings can help inform future planning and commissioning of allergy services

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Perplexing presentations in paediatric gastroenterology (2018)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Pigott, Anna Jane; Saran, Shashwat; *Monaghan, Sean

Citation:
Paediatrics & Child Health; Nov 2018; vol. 28 (no. 11); p. 515-519

Abstract:
Abstract The nature of gastroenterological conditions often lead the clinician to rely on the history offered by the parents or carers to make a diagnosis and create a management plan. It is no coincidence that some of the most frequent presentations of fabricated or induced illness (FII) are with apparent gastroenterological complaints. This review details elements in the presenting history of vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea, blood in stool, faltering growth and abdominal pain that potentially make FII a more likely diagnosis, and proposes a management approach to a suspected presentation of FII.

The paediatrician and the management of common gynaecological conditions (2018)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Ritchie, Joanne K; Latthe, Pallavi; Jyothish, Deepthi; Blair, Joanne C

Citation:
Archives of disease in childhood; Jul 2018, 103(7), p. 703-706

Abstract:
Paediatric gynaecology is an emerging discipline. Since 2000, there has been an advanced training programme in paediatric gynaecology available for obstetric and gynaecology trainees; additionally, a set of clinical standards1 for the care of paediatric and adolescent patients has been developed by The British Society of Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology (BritSPAG). BritSPAG is a multidisciplinary group of professionals including gynaecologists, paediatricians, paediatric urologists and endocrinologists.Girls with gynaecological conditions are often seen in general paediatric services; it is important that those assessing them are confident in identifying patients who require more specialist care. Despite this, gynaecology does not appear in the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health curriculum. This article aims to increase the knowledge base and confidence of paediatricians in dealing with common paediatric and adolescent gynaecological conditions.

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