A Systematic Review of Long-Distance Triathlon Musculoskeletal Injuries (2022)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Rhind JH; Dass D; Barnett A; *Carmont M

Citation:Journal of Human Kinetics 2022 Feb 10; Vol. 81, pp. 123-134.

Abstract:The distribution of injuries affecting long-distance triathletes is yet to be fully understood. A systematic review was performed of the clinical literature to determine the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries affecting long-distance triathletes. Searched databases in Feb 2020 were PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, EMCARE, and CINHAL databases. Published observational research articles related to the incidence or prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in long-distance triathletes (competing at "Ironman" full distance or greater), written in the English language and not restricted by age or gender or date were eligible. Of the 975 studies identified on the initial search, six studies met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The mean age (SD) of the long-distance triathletes in these studies was 35.1 (2.7) and the range was 21-68 years. Overuse injuries were most frequent with the incidence range of 37-91%, and acute injury incidence range was 24-27%. The knee and spine were the most frequent location of injury. Running and cycling were the most frequently affected disciplines. Elite athletes had a lower incidence of overuse injury (37%). The highest acute injury incidence (27%) was recorded in non-elite athletes. The quality of the studies was relatively poor with only one study satisfying >50% of the quality assessment tool questions and only two studies were prospective, the rest were retrospective cross-sectional studies. Overall, there is a lack of literature reporting on musculoskeletal injuries in long-distance triathletes. Overuse injuries, particularly in the knee, are the most frequently reported, running and cycling are the most frequent disciplines associated. Long-distance triathletes may have a lower incidence of both overuse and acute injuries.

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Soft tissue extensor mechanism tendon ruptures of the knee (2021)

Type of publication:Journal article

Author(s):Rhind J.-H.; *Lancaster P.; *Ahmed U.; *Carmont M.

Citation:British Journal of Hospital Medicine; Sep 2021; vol. 82 (no. 9); p. 1-9

Abstract:Ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee are serious injuries requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. They can be divided into soft tissue and bony causes. Soft tissue tendon injuries can be either partial or complete. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon injury and is more frequent in patients over the age of 40 years. Patella tendon ruptures are even rarer and are more frequent in patients under the age of 40 years. Causes can be direct or indirect. Complete ruptures of the quadriceps tendon or patella tendon benefit from early surgical management, while partial ruptures may be managed non-operatively. This article gives an overview of the presentation, assessment and management of soft tissue extensor mechanism tendon ruptures for core surgical, acute care common stem and emergency medicine trainees.

Rothia mucilaginosa: a case of septic arthritis in a native knee and review of the literature (2021)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Daoub, Ahmed; *Ansari, Hamza; *Orfanos, George; *Barnett, Andrew

Citation:
BMJ case reports; Jan 2021; vol. 14 (no. 1)

Abstract:
Rothia mucilaginosa is a Gram-positive aerobic coccus usually found in the oral and respiratory tract. Septic arthritis is an uncommon condition, but is an orthopaedic emergency. A rare case of knee septic arthritis due to R. mucilaginosa is presented. Patient management and outcomes are discussed, and learning points from this case are outlined to help manage any further cases that may arise.

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Do the heel-rise test and isometric strength improve after Achilles tendon repair using Dresden technique? (2022)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
De la Fuente, Carlos; Henriquez, Hugo; *Carmont, Michael R; Huincahue, Javiera; Paredes, Tamara; Tapia, María; Araya, Juan Pablo; Díaz, Nicolás; Carpes, Felipe P

Citation:
Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons; Jan 2022, 28(1) pages 37-43

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Achilles' tendon ruptures result in impaired plantar flexion strength and endurance. It is interesting to know the plantar flexion strength, the number of heel-rise repetitions, and the maximal calf circumference following Achilles' tendon ruptures repair. METHODS Both the injured and non-injured legs of thirty male patients with Achilles' tendon ruptures treated with the percutaneous Dresden technique were compared with the ankle function of 30 healthy participants. Rehabilitation involved partial weight-bearing for three weeks and then increased to full weight-bearing and ankle exercises. RESULTS The injured legs had weaker plantar flexion strength (1.64 ± 0.17 Nm/kg) compared with the non-injured legs (1.91 ± 0.24 Nm/kg; p = 0.002) and the healthy participants' legs (1.93 ± 0.32 Nm/kg; p < 0.001). The non-injured leg had greater ability in doing heel-rise repetitions (39.4 ± 6.1 rep.) compared with the injured legs (37.2 ± 5.7 rep.; p < 0.023) and the healthy participants' legs (31.0 ± 13.0 rep.; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The injured leg had not recovered full isometric strength but had improved heel-rise repetition.

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No difference in Achilles Tendon Resting Angle, Patient-reported outcome or Heel-rise height Index between Non- and Early-weightbearing the First Year after an Achilles Tendon Rupture (2020)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
*Carmont M; Brorsson, A.; Karlsson, J.; Nilsson-Helander, K.

Citation:
Muscles, Ligaments & Tendons Journal (MLTJ); Oct 2020; vol. 10 (no. 4); p. 651-658

Abstract:
Background. Patient-reported outcome scores and comparable re-rupture rates in randomized controlled trials have not shown a definitive benefit for operative treatment after acute Achilles tendon rupture. This, together with the increasing rupture rates in the older age group has led to non-operative treatment being increasingly used. Objective. This study aimed to determine the variation in Achilles Tendon Resting Angle (ATRA) together with patient reported and functional outcome, with non-operative management of the ruptured Achilles tendon using two different regimes, which have been shown to offer low re-rupture rates. Methods. This is a non-randomised cohort comparison of Achilles tendon rupture patients managed with Non-Weight-Bearing (NWB) for 6 weeks vs. Early Weight-Bearing (EWB). The NWB-group received a cast in plantar flexion for 2 weeks followed by 6 weeks in a controlled ankle motion boot with incremental diminishing plantar flexion. The EWB-group received an initial anterior protective plaster slab in plantar flexion followed by 6 weeks of weight-bearing on the meta-tarsal heads, with an anterior shell restricting dorsiflexion. Results. At 12 months after the injury there were no differences in any of the variables between the two treatment groups. The NWB-group compared to the EWB-group reported at mean (SD) for ATRA -9.8° (4.6°) versus -11.4° (5°), p=0.32, for Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) 87 (10) versus 79 (19), p=0.43 and for Heel-Rise Height Index (HRHI) 71% (19%) versus 59% (13%), p=0.13. Conclusions. The two methods of non-operative treatment studied lead to increased relative ATRA following injury, however, patients report only minor limitation in terms of outcome. Patients had almost a third less heel-rise height compared with the non-injured ankle.

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Mortality and burden of cervical spine fractures in the elderly: can we do more? (2017)

Type of publication:
Conference abstract

Author(s):
*Matthew Chan, *Benjamin Chatterton, *David Ford

Citation:
Spine Journal; Mar 2017; vol. 17 (no. 3), S20

Abstract:
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical spine fractures in the elderly are a significant injury that poses difficult treatment dilemmas. Despite this little has been done to evaluate the mortality and hospital burden. PURPOSE: Evaluate the mortality and hospital burden associated with cervical spine fractures in elderly patients at district general hospitals. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: 10-year retrospective analysis of patients over the age of 70 presenting with a cervical spine fracture to two district general hospitals. METHODS: The data was collected from documentation on online hospital database systems. Data recorded included patient demographics, injuries sustained including level and mechanism of cervical injury, length of stay and details on inpatient complications, inpatient mortality and one-year mortality. RESULTS: 153 patients were identified with a mean age of 83, and slight female predominance (55%). Mechanical falls (90%) leading to isolated fractures of upper cervical spine, particularly C2 (52%), were the most common site and mechanism of injury. Inpatient mortality was 22.9%, and 1-year mortality was calculated at 35.3%. Inpatient medical complications, particularly chest infections, were common and occurred in 35.9% of patients. Total average length of stay was 18 days, and critical care input was required in 10.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical spine fractures in the elderly cause significant mortality and hospital burden. Medical complications are common, leading to increased morbidity and length of stay. Consideration should be made to develop national guidance akin to hip fractures. This would encourage a multidisciplinary team approach, including early input from medical and physiotherapy teams to ensure more effective treatment and prevention of complications.

Ultrasound guided musculoskeletal interventions: professional opportunities, challenges and the future of injection therapy (2015)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Sue Innes, Mark Maybury, Alison Hall, *Gordon Lumsden

Citation:
Sonography (2015) 2(4): 84-91

Abstract:
The demand for ultrasound guided injections for musculoskeletal presentations has increased in recent years as practitioners and patients seek verification of needle position. Musculoskeletal management pathways regularly include injection therapy for pain relief and are sometimes indicated as a single intervention but may need to be supported by rehabilitation. Workload in radiology departments has expanded in volume and complexity as radiologists perform new interventional procedures that require medical expertise. Innovative responses are required to meet the demand for ultrasound guided musculoskeletal injections; one option is offering appropriate education to musculoskeletal sonographers, enabling them to extend their current scope of practice. The role of the extended scope physiotherapist in the United Kingdom provides evidence that role diversification can produce excellent patient outcomes whilst preserving financial resources. The professional, legal and clinical requirements of extending service provision to include new clinical staff presents challenges that have to be met with strong leadership and the provision of high quality education in ultrasound guided interventions. There are many indicators that the patient experience is enhanced by guiding musculoskeletal injections, and access to this service has impact on patients’ confidence in their treatment pathway.

Calcaneus osteotomy (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Tennant J.N., *Carmont M., Phisitkul P.

Citation:
Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 2014, vol./is. 7/4(271-276), 1935-973X;1935-9748 (2014)

Abstract:
Calcaneal osteotomy is an extra-articular, joint-sparing procedure that is used in the correction of cavovarus and planovalgus foot deformity. Careful indications and contraindications for the procedure, with meticulous surgical technique, should be followed to avoid complications and to achieve optimal outcomes. Multiple options of osteotomies exist, including translational (medializing and lateralizing calcaneal osteotomy, with ability to slide proximally or distally, closing wedge (Dwyer), and rotational type osteotomies (Evans, Z-osteotomy). Future directions for innovation include developments of both implants and surgical techniques.

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Anatomy of the sural nerve and its relation to the achilles tendon by ultrasound examination (2014)

Type of publication:
Journal article

Author(s):
Kammar H., *Carmont M.R., Kots E., Laver L., Mann G., Nyska M., Mei-Dan O.

Citation:
Orthopedics, March 2014, vol./is. 37/3(e298-e301), 0147-7447 (March 2014)

Abstract:
Sural nerve injury is a relatively common complication after surgery on the Achilles tendon. Studies to determine the course of the sural nerve have been performed on cadaveric specimens. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use ultrasound to determine the relations of the sural nerve in a healthy population. The authors performed ultrasound examination of the posterior triangle of the ankle and Achilles tendon to determine the course of the sural nerve relative to the Achilles tendon in healthy participants. The mean distance between the nerve and the tendon was 21.48, 11.47, 5.8, and 0.81 mm lateral to the Achilles tendon as measured at the insertion and 4, 8, and 11 cm proximally, respectively. Male participants tended to have a nerve that was initially more lateral to the Achilles insertion compared with women. The distance between the sural nerve and the Achilles tendon was found to be lower in older participants, with the nerve passing significantly closer to the tendon at all levels (P

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